Internet Mental Health

SCHIZOTYPAL PERSONALITY DISORDER






Internet Mental Health Quality of Life Scale (Client Version)

Internet Mental Health Quality of Life Scale (Therapist Version)

Big 5 Factors Of Mental Illness And Code For This Disorder
(The "6th Big Factor" of Mental Health, "Physical Health", Is Coded Normal or Green)

  • Individuals with Schizotypal Personality Disorder are characterized by pervasive impoverishment of, and peculiarities in, interpersonal relationships, emotional experience, and thought processes.

  • Since adolescence or early adulthood, was socially withdrawn because of eccentricity, odd beliefs, suspiciousness, perceptual distortions, and flat emotions.

  • Not due to a medical or substance use disorder.

  • This disorder is now seen as a mild, arrested or premorbid form of Schizophrenia.

Prediction

    Can last for years or be lifelong

Problems

Occupational-Economic Problems:

  • Causes significant impairment in academic, occupational and/or social functioning

  • Works poorly with others (works best when alone)
Antagonistic (Antagonism):

  • Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation

  • Excessive social anxiety that does not diminish with familiarity and tends to be associated with paranoid fears rather than negative judgments about self

Irrational (Impaired Intellect):

  • Ideas of reference (excluding delusions of reference)

  • Odd beliefs or magical thinking that influences behavior and is inconsistent with subcultural norms (e.g., superstitiousness, belief in clairvoyance, telepathy, or "sixth sense"; in children and adolescents, bizarre fantasies or preoccupations)

  • Unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily illusions

  • Odd thinking and speech (e.g., vague, circumstantial, metaphorical, overelaborate, or stereotyped)

  • Inappropriate or constricted affect

  • Behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric, or peculiar

Detached (Detachment):

  • Lack of close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives


SAPAS Personality Screening Test

Individuals with this disorder would answer "Yes" to the red questions:

      In general, do you have difficulty making and keeping friends?
      Would you normally describe yourself as a loner?
      In general, do you trust other people? (No)
      Do you normally lose your temper easily?
      Are you normally an impulsive sort of person?
      Are you normally a worrier?
      In general, do you depend on others a lot?
      In general, are you a perfectionist?



Back to top


Click Here For Free Diagnosis

Limitations of Self-Diagnosis

Self-diagnosis of this disorder is often inaccurate. Accurate diagnosis of this disorder requires assessment by a qualified practitioner trained in psychiatric diagnosis and evidence-based treatment.

However, if no such professional is available, our free computerized diagnosis is usually accurate when completed by an informant who knows the patient well. Computerized diagnosis is less accurate when done by patients (because they often lack insight).

Example Of Our Computer Generated Diagnostic Assessment

Schizotypal Personality Disorder 301.22

This diagnosis is based on the following findings:

  • Ideas of reference (excluding delusions of reference) (still present)

  • Odd beliefs or magical thinking that influenced behavior and is inconsistent with cultural norms (still present)

  • Odd thinking and speech (still present)

  • Unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily illusions (still present)

  • Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation (still present)

  • Inappropriate or constricted affect (still present)

  • Behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric, or peculiar (still present)

  • Lacks close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives (still present)

  • Excessive social anxiety due to paranoid fears (still present)

  • This disorder does not exclusively occur during the course of a psychotic mental disorder

  • This disorder is not due to Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • This disorder is not due to the direct physiological effects of a general medical condition

Treatment Goals:

  • Goal: be less suspicious that unrelated or innocuous things in the world are referring to her directly.
    If this problem persists: She will continue to erroneously have these ideas of reference (e.g., erroneously thinking strangers are talking about her, or believing that unrelated events have special personal significance for her).

  • Goal: be less superstitious or preoccupied with paranormal phenomena.
    IIf this problem persists: She will continue to be preoccupied with these paranormal phenomena that are outside the norms of her subculture. She may feel that she has special powers to sense events before they happen or to read others' thoughts. She may believe that she has magical control over others.

  • Goal: disregard perceptual distortions.
    If this problem persists: Her behavior will continue to be influenced by perceptual distortions (e.g., sensing that another person is present or hearing a voice murmuring her name when no one is there).

  • Goal: make speech clearer and more logical.
    If this problem persists: Her speech will drift into unusual or idiosyncratic phrasing and construction. Responses will be either overly concrete or overly abstract, and words or concepts will sometimes be appied in bizarre or unusual ways.

  • Goal: be more trusting of others.
    If this problem persists: She will continue to assume that other people will exploit, harm, or deceive her, even when there is no evidence to support these suspicions. She will continue to feel that she has been deeply hurt by another person even when there is no evidence for this.

  • Goal: show more emotional expression.
    If this problem persists: To others, she will appear cold and aloof, rarely displaying emotional reactivity and reciprocating gestures or facial expressions (such as smiles or nods). To others, she will appear to rarely experience strong emotions such as anger or joy.

  • Goal: appear less eccentric or odd.
    If this problem persists: Others will see her as odd or eccentric because of her unusual mannerisms, unkept manner of dress, or inattention to the usual social conventions (e.g., she may avoid eye contact, and be unable to join in the give-and-take banter of co-workers).

  • Goal: have more close friends.
    If this problem persists: She will live a life lacking close friends or confidants.

  • Goal: be less tense and suspicious with others.
    If this problem persists: Her social anxiety will not easily abate, even when she spends more time in the social setting or becomes more familiar with the other people. This will be because her social anxiety tends to be associated with her suspiiciousness regarding others' motivations. For example, when attending a dinner party, she will not become more relaxed as time goes on, but rather may become increasingly tense and suspicious.


Back to top


Schizotypal Disorder F21 - ICD10 Description, World Health Organization

Schizotypal disorder is characterized by eccentric behavior and anomalies of thinking and affect which resemble those seen in schizophrenia, though no definite and characteristic schizophrenic anomalies occur at any stage. The symptoms may include a cold or inappropriate affect; anhedonia; odd or eccentric behavior; a tendency to social withdrawal; paranoid or bizarre ideas not amounting to true delusions; obsessive ruminations; thought disorder and perceptual disturbances; occasional transient quasi-psychotic episodes with intense illusions, auditory or other hallucinations, and delusion-like ideas, usually occurring without external provocation. There is no definite onset. The evolution and course are usually those of a personality disorder.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder - Diagnostic Criteria, American Psychiatric Association

An individual diagnosed with schizotypal personality disorder needs to show at least 5 of the following criteria:

  • Ideas of reference (excluding delusions of reference).

  • Odd beliefs or magical thinking that influences behavior and is inconsistent with subcultural norms (e.g., superstitiousness, belief in clairvoyance, telepathy, or "sixth sense"; in children and adolescents, bizarre fantasies or preoccupations).

  • Unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily illusions.

  • Odd thinking and speech (e.g., vague, circumstantial, metaphorical, overelaborate, or stereotyped).

  • Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation.

  • Inappropriate or constricted affect.

  • Behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric, or peculiar.

  • Lack of close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives.

  • Excessive social anxiety that does not diminish with familiarity and tends to be associated with paranoid fears rather than negative judgments about self.

  • This enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior must deviate markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture.

  • This enduring pattern is inflexible and pervasive across a broad range of personal and social situations.

  • This enduring pattern leads to clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

  • Empirically Derived Taxonomy for Personality Diagnosis: Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    (This section uses an alternative classification system to that of the American Psychiatric Association)

    These individuals:

    • Show substantial peculiarities in their thinking and perception. Their speech and thought processes may be circumstantial, rambling, or digressive, their reasoning processes or perceptual experiences may seem odd and idiosyncratic, and they may be suspicious of others, reading malevolent intent into others' words and actions.

    • Their appearance or manner may be odd or peculiar (e.g., their grooming, posture, eye contact, or speech rhythms may seem strange or "off"), and their verbal statements may be incongruous with their accompanying emotion or non-verbal behavior.

    • Lack close relationships and appear to have little need for human company or contact, often seeming detached or indifferent.

    • Lack social skills and tend to be socially awkward or inappropriate.

    • Have difficulty making sense of others' behavior and appear unable to describe important others in a way that conveys a sense of who they are as people.

    • Have little insight into their own motives and behavior, and have difficulty giving a coherent account of their lives.

    • Appear to have a limited or constricted range of emotions and tend to think in concrete terms, showing limited ability to appreciate metaphor, analogy, or nuance. Consequently, they tend to elicit boredom in others.

    • Despite their apparent emotional detachment, they often suffer emotionally: They find little satisfaction or enjoyment in life's activities, tend to feel life has no meaning, and feel like outcasts or outsiders.


    Back to top


    Diagnostic Features

    Individuals with Schizotypal Personality Disorder grow up being socially and emotionally withdrawn and odd or eccentric. The core features of this disorder are: (1) detachment (suspiciousness, social withdrawal, intimacy avoidance, inability to feel pleasure, restricted emotional expression), and (2) irrationality (eccentricity, odd beliefs, perceptual distortions). This disorder is only diagnosed if: (1) it begins no later than early adulthood, (2) these behaviors occur at home, work, and in the community, and (3) these behaviors lead to clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. This disorder should not be diagnosed if its symptoms occur exclusively during the course of a Psychotic Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder, or if it is attributable to Substance Use Disorder another medical condition.

    Individuals with Schizotypal Personality Disorder have acute discomfort with close relationships. Thus these individuals have few close friends and little desire for sexual intimacy. They have little reaction to emotionally arousing situations, and restricted emotional expression. Thus they may appear indifferent or cold. They may have social withdrawal with avoidance of social contacts and activity. Individuals with this disorder may have undue suspiciousness and feelings of persecution. They may have excessive social anxiety with these paranoid fears.

    Individuals with Schizotypal Personality Disorder do not have psychotic symptoms (i.e., delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, or grossly disorganized/catatonic behavior). However, they may have ideas of reference and odd beliefs that are almost delusions. Likewise, they may have unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily illusions, that are almost hallucinations. They may have odd speech (e.g., vague, circumstantial, overelaborate, or stereotyped) that is almost grossly disorganized.

    Like all personality disorders, Schizotypal Personality Disorder is a deeply ingrained and enduring behavior pattern, manifesting as an inflexible response to a broad range of personal and social situations. This behavior represents an extreme or significant deviation from the way in which the average individual in a given culture relates to others. This behavior pattern tends to be stable.

      Warning: Self-diagnosis of this disorder is often inaccurate. Accurate diagnosis of this disorder requires assessment by a qualified practitioner trained in psychiatric diagnosis and evidence-based treatment. However, if no such professional is available, our free computerized diagnosis is usually accurate when completed by an informant who knows the patient well. Computerized diagnosis is less accurate when done by patients (because they often lack insight).

    Course

    Schizotypal Personality Disorder may first appear in childhood and adolescence with solitariness, poor peer relationships, social anxiety, underachievement in school, hypersensitivity, peculiar thoughts and language, and bizarre fantasies. These children may appear odd or eccentric and attract teasing. With some adolescents, these schizotypal features may be caused by transient emotional turmoil, and these features disappear when the turmoil resolves. For other adolescents, these schizotypal features persist into adulthood, and almost half of individuals with this disorder go on to develop a psychotic disorder.

    Complications

    In response to stress, individuals with Schizotypal Personality Disorder may experience very brief psychotic episodes (lasting minutes to hours). If the psychotic episode lasts longer, this disorder may actually develop into Brief Psychotic Disorder, Schizophreniform Disorder, Delusional Disorder or Schizophrenia.

    Comorbidity

    Personality disorders are an overlooked and underappreciated source of psychiatric morbidity. Comorbid personality disorders may, in fact, account for much of the morbidity attributed to axis I disorders in research and clinical practice. "High percentages of patients with schizotypal (98.8%), borderline (98.3%), avoidant (96.2%), and obsessive-compulsive (87.6%) personality disorder and major depressive disorder (92.8%) exhibited moderate (or worse) impairment or poor (or worse) functioning in at least one area."
    Some other disorders frequently occur with this disorder:

      Non-Personality Disorders:

              Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders:
        • This disorder may be a premorbid antecendent of a psychotic disorder. In response to stress, individuals with this disorder may experience very brief psychotic episodes (lasting minutes to hours). If the psychotic episode lasts longer, this disorder may actually develop into delusional disorder or schizophrenia.
              Depressive Disorders:
        • Half have a history of major depressive disorder.

      Personality Disorders:

              Avoidant personality disorder
              Paranoid Personality Disorder
              Schizoid Personality Disorder
              Borderline Personality Disorder

    Associated Laboratory Findings

    No laboratory test has been found to be diagnostic of this disorder.

    Prevalence

    Schizotypal personality disorder occurs in 0.6%-4.6% of the general population. This disorder occurs slightly more commonly in males.

    Outcome

    This disorder is chronic. In a two-year follow-up study 48.3% of patients with Schizotypal Personality Disorder develop psychosis.

    Familial Pattern

    Schizotypal personality disorder is more common among first-degree biological relatives of those with schizophrenia, and visa versa.

    Controlled Clinical Trials Of Therapy

    Click here for a list of all the controlled clinical trials of therapy for this disorder.

    Psychotherapy

    The effectiveness of psychotherapy for Schizotypal Personality Disorder is unknown because there are no randomized controlled trials of therapy. Individuals with this disorder seldom voluntarily present for treatment.

    Pharmacotherapy

    There are few randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trails for the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for the core symptoms of schizotypal personality disorder. One 9-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study found low-dose risperidone (starting dose of 0.25 g/day, titrated upward to 2 mg/day) to be effective in reducing symptom severity in schizotypal personality disorder and was generally well tolerated. Unfortunately, another study found that low-dose risperidone treatment did not improve cognitive functioning (e.g., memory, attention, learning).

    The fact that schizotypal personality disorder frequently converts into a psychotic disorder, and responds to antipsychotic medication; all supports the conclusion that this disorder isn't a "personality disorder", but instead is simply an early stage in the development of schizophrenia. Individuals with this disorder seldom voluntarily present for treatment; yet low-dose antipsychotic medication can be very helpful in reducing their odd and eccentric pre-psychotic symptoms.

    Vitamins, nutritional supplements, and special diets are all ineffective for all Personality Disorders.

    A Dangerous Cult


    Back to top





    Stories

    Rating Scales

    Schizotypal Personality Disorder Probably Isn't A Personality Disorder

    The World Health Organization's ICD-10 does not classify Schizotypal Personality Disorder as a personality disorder, but it admits that "the evolution and course are usually those of a personality disorder". The ICD-10 treats Schizotypal Personality Disorder as a mild, arrested or premorbid form of Schizophrenia. In contrast, the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-5 classifies this disorder both as a personality disorder, and as part of the Schizophrenia spectrum of disorders. Thus the consensus now is that Schizotypal Personality Disorder should be seen as a subclinical form of Schizophrenia - instead of being seen as a personality disorder.

    Lack Of Social Skills In Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    There are certain social skills that are essential for healthy social functioning. Individuals with Schizotypal Personality Disorder lack the essential social skills of: normal behavior, normal beliefs, and normal perception. They also lack intimacy, sociabililty, and emotional expressiveness (that are also lacking in individuals with Schizoid Personality Disorder); and lack trust (that is also lacking in individuals with Paranoid Personality Disorder).

      Social Skills That Are Lacking In Schizotypal Personality Disorder

      SOCIAL SKILL SCHIZOTYPAL PERSONALITY NORMAL
      Normal Behavior Eccentricity (odd, unusual or bizarre behavior) Normal behavior and appearance
      Normal Beliefs Odd beliefs (paranoid or bizarre ideas not amounting to true delusions) Normal beliefs and experiences
      Normal Perception Perceptual distortions (depersonalization, derealization, dissociative, or thought-control experiences) Normal perception
      Intimacy Intimacy avoidance Wanting close friendships or intimate romantic relationships
      Sociability Social withdrawal Friendly; interested in social contacts and activities
      Emotional Expressiveness Lack of emotional expression Normal range of emotional experience and expression
      Trust Suspiciousness Trusting the loyalty and good intentions of significant others (e.g., family, friends)

    Paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorder share a number of features.

      Social Skills That Are Lacking In Paranoid, Schizoid, and Schizotypal Personality Disorders

      PERSONALITY DISORDER LACKING LACKING LACKING
      Paranoid Personality Trust (instead has suspiciousness) Forgiveness (instead has bearing grudges) Gratitude (instead has feeling victimized)
      Schizoid Personality Intimacy (instead has intimacy avoidance) Sociability (instead has social withdrawal) Emotional expressiveness (instead has lack of emotional expression)
      Schizotypal Personality Normal Behavior (instead has eccentricity) Normal Beliefs (instead has odd beliefs) Normal Perception (instead has perceptual distortions)

    Primate Evolution:

    There appears to be three different ways in which primates have evolved socially:

    • The chimpanzees have evolved to be socially antagonistic, competitive, callous, and manipulative. Chimpanzees are the only primates (apart from humans) that wage organized war. Thus chimpanzee social behavior most closely mirrors the antagonistic behavior of the antisocial-narcissistic-borderline-histrionic cluster of personality disorders.

    • In contrast, the bonobos have evolved to be socially anxious, peaceful, cooperative, and loving. Thus bonobo social behavior most closely mirrors the negative emotion (anxious) behavior of the avoidant-dependent cluster of personality disorders.

    • Another separate evolutionary path was followed by the orangutans. They evolved to become solitary hermits. Thus orangutan social behavior most closely mirrors the detached behavior of the paranoid-schizoid-schizotypal cluster of personality disorders.

    Core Behaviors Of The Detached Cluster Of Personality Disorders

    Religious Hermit

    History is filled with thousands of stories of religious hermits who withdrew to a solitary place for a life of religious seclusion.

    The core feature of the paranoid-schizoid-schizotypal cluster of personality disorders is detachment. Individuals with these disorders are socially and emotionally withdrawn; thus prefer a solitary life.

      Detachment: The Core Feature of the Detached Cluster of Personality Disorders

      • suspiciousness:
        In the past week, did you suspect that people were exploiting, harming, or deceiving you?

      • social withdrawal:
        In the past week, did you mostly prefer to be alone?

      • intimacy avoidance:
        In the past week, did you avoid close friendships (outside of your family) or romantic relationships?

      • inability to feel pleasure:
        In the past week, did few things in life give you pleasure?

      • restricted emotional expression:
        In the past week, did you seldom smile or show much emotion?

    Parental Behaviors Which Increase The Risk Of Developing A Personality Disorder

    Research has shown that genetic, environmental, and prenatal factors all play important roles in the development of personality disorder. Research has also shown that low parental affection and harsh parenting increase the risk of a child later developing a personality disorder.

    "Low affection" was defined as: low parental affection, low parental time spent with the child, poor parental communication with the child, poor home maintenance, low educational aspirations for the child, poor parental supervision, low paternal assistance to the child's mother, and poor paternal role fulfillment. "Harsh parenting" was defined as: harsh punishment, inconsistent maternal enforcement of rules, frequent loud arguments between the parents, difficulty controlling anger toward the child, possessiveness, use of guilt to control the child, and verbal abuse.


    Back to top




    Setting Goals In Therapy

      Questions To Ask When Setting Goals

      In The Past Week:
      • WHO: was your problem?

      • EVENT: what did he/she do?

      • RESPONSE: how did you respond to that event?

      • OUTCOME: did your response help?

      • TRIGGER: what did you do that could have triggered this problem?

      • GOAL: what life skill(s) do you have to work on? (from checklist)

      Example Of Setting Goals In Interviewing A Person With Schizotypal Personality Disorder

      In The Past Week:
      • WHO: was your problem?
        "The people in my apartment."

      • EVENT: what did he/she do?
        "Whenever I meet them, it's as if their force field is sucking mine dry. Being with them exhausts me spiritually."

      • RESPONSE: how did you respond to that event?
        "I try to avoid these neighbors by staying at home as much as I can."

      • OUTCOME: did your response help?
        "No, if anything, this is getting worse."

      • TRIGGER: what did you do that could have triggered this problem?
        "It's as if I am in spiritual warfare with my neighbors; that's why I avoid them."

      • GOAL: what life skill(s) do you have to work on? (from checklist)
        "I want to work on: (1) Trust ("trusting the loyalty and good intentions of significant others"), and (2) Sociability ("being friendly; interested in social contacts and activities")."


    Back to top




    Improving Positive Behavior

    Philosophers for the past 2,500 years have taught that it is very beneficial to start the day with goal-setting, and end the day with a brief review.

    This habit of planning your day in the morning, and reviewing your day in the evening, is a time-proven technique for more successful living.

    Note: When each of the following videos finishes; you must exit YouTube (by manually closing the window) in order to return to this webpage.



    Morning Meditation (5-Minute Video)



    Afternoon Meditation (Learn How To Have Healthy Relationships)



    Evening Meditation (5-Minute Video)



    Life Satisfaction Scale (Video)



    Healthy Social Behavior Scale (Video)



    Mental Health Scale (Video)



    Click Here For More Self-Help



    Back to top



      "In physical science a first essential step in the direction of learning any subject is to find principles of numerical reckoning and practicable methods for measuring some quality connected with it. I often say that when you can measure what you are speaking about and express it in numbers you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meagre and unsatisfactory kind: it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely, in your thoughts, advanced to the stage of science, whatever the matter may be."

      Lord Kelvin (1824 – 1907)


    • The best summary on bad research is given by Laura Arnold in this TEDx lecture. If you read nothing else about research, you owe it to yourself to watch this short video - it is excellent!

    • Canadian researchers who commit scientific fraud are protected by privacy laws: There are criminals in every community - even in the scientific research community (especially if a lot of money is at stake). Criminal researchers can hide their fraud behind outdated privacy laws.

    • The power of asking "what if?"

    • The active placebo effect: 2300 years ago, the Greek Stoic philosophers taught that it is not the objective event, but our subjective judgment about the event, that determines our behavior. The active placebo effect bears witness to this ancient wisdom.

    • Criteria For High Quality Research Studies

    • It is troubling that a recent study found that two-thirds of important psychological research studies couldn't be replicated. High quality research must meet the following criteria:

      • Randomized Controlled Trial:
        Ask: Was the trial randomized? Was the randomization procedure described and was it appropriate? The best research design is to have research subjects randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. It is essential that confounding factors be controlled for by having a control group or comparator condition (no intervention, placebo, care as usual etc.).

      • Representative Sample:
        Ask: Do the research subjects represent a normal cross-section of the population being studied? Many psychological research studies using university students are flawed because their subjects are not representative of the normal population since they are all W.E.I.R.D. (White, Educated, Intelligent, Rich, and living in a Democracy).

      • Single Blind Trial:
        Ask: Was the treatment allocation concealed? It is essential that the research subjects are kept "blind" as to whether they are in the experimental or control group (in order to control for any placebo effects).

      • Double Blind Trial (Better Than Single Blind Trial):
        Ask: Were blind outcome assessments conducted? In a double blind study, neither the research subjects nor the outcome assessors know if the research subject is in the experimental or control group. This controls for both the placebo effect and assessor bias.

      • Baseline Comparability:
        Ask: Were groups similar at baseline on prognostic indicators? The experimental and control groups must be shown to be comparable at the beginning of the study.

      • Confounding Factors:
        Ask: Were there factors, that weren't controlled for, that could have seriously distorted the study's results? For example, research studies on the effectiveness of mindfulness cognitive therapy in preventing depressive relapse forgot to control for whether the research subjects were also simultaneously receiving antidepressant medication or other psychological treatments for depression.

      • Intervention Integrity:
        Ask: Was the research study protocal strictly followed? The research subjects must be shown to be compliant (e.g., taking their pills, attending therapy) and the therapists must be shown to be reliably delivering the intervention (e.g., staying on the research protocol).

      • Statistical analysis:
        Ask: Was a statistical power calculation described? The study should discuss its statistical power analysis; that is whether the study size is large enough to statistically detect a difference between the experimental and control group (should it occur) and usually this requires at least 50 research subjects in the study.

        Ask: Are the results both statistically significant and clinically significant? The results should be both statistically significant (with a p-value <0.05) and clinically significant using some measure of Effect Size such as Standardized Mean Difference (e.g., Cohen's d >= 0.33). The summary statistics should report what percentage of the total variance of the dependent variable (e.g., outcome) can be explained by the independent variable (e.g., intervention). In clinical studies, the study should report the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB), and the number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH).

          Number Needed To Benefit (NNTB): This is defined as the number of patients that need to be treated for one of them to benefit compared with a control in a clinical trial. (It is defined as the inverse of the absolute risk reduction.) Note: Statistically, the NNTB depends on which control group is used for comparison - e.g., active treatment vs. placebo treatment, or active treatment vs. no treatment.

          Number Needed To Harm (NNTH): This is defined as the number of patients that need to be treated for one of them to be harmed compared with a control in a clinical trial. (It is defined as the inverse of the absolute increase in risk of harm.)

          Tomlinson found “an NNTB of 5 or less was probably associated with a meaningful health benefit,” while “an NNTB of 15 or more was quite certain to be associated with at most a small net health benefit.”

        Ask: Does the researcher accept full responsibility for the study's statistical analysis? The researcher should not just hand over the study's raw data to a corporation (that may have $1,000 million invested in the study) to do the statistical analysis.

      • Completeness of follow-up data:
        Ask: Was the number of withdrawals or dropouts in each group mentioned, and were reasons given for these withdrawals or dropouts? Less than 20% of the research subjects should drop out of the study. The intervention effect should persist over an adequate length of time.

      • Handling of missing data:
        Ask: Was the statistical analysis conducted on the intention-to-treat sample? There must be use of intention-to-treat analysis (as opposed to a completers-only analysis). In this way, all of the research subjects that started the study are included in the final statistical analysis. A completers-only analysis would disregard those research subjects that dropped out.

      • Replication of Findings:
        Ask: Can other researchers replicate this study's results? The research study's methodology should be clearly described so that the study can be easily replicated. The researcher's raw data should be available to other researchers to review (in order to detect errors or fraud).

      • Fraud:
        Ask: Is there a suspicion of fraud? In a research study, examine the independent and dependent variables that are always measured as a positive whole number (e.g., a variable measured on a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from "1 = definitely false to 5 = definitely true" etc.). For each of these variables, look at their sample size (n), mean (M) and standard deviation (SD) before they undergo statistical analysis. There is a high suspicion of fraud in a study's statistics:

        • If the M is mathematically impossible (online calculator): This is one of the easiest ways to mathematically detect fraud. The mean (M) is defined as "the sum (Sum) of the values of each observation divided by the total number (n) of observations". So: M = Sum/n. Thus: (Sum) = (M) multiplied by (n). We know that, if a variable is always measured as a positive whole number, the sum of these observations always has to be a whole number. For these variables to test for fraud: calculate (M) multiplied by (n). This calculates the Sum which MUST be a positive whole number. If the calculated Sum isn't a positive whole number; the reported mean (M) is mathematically impossible - thus the researcher either cooked the data or made a mistake. A recent study of 260 research papers published in highly reputable psychological journals found that 1 in 2 of these research papers reported at least one impossible value, and 1 in 5 of these research papers reported multiple impossible values. When the authors of the 21 worst offending research papers were asked for their raw data (so that its reliability could be checked) - 57% angrily refused. Yet such release of raw data to other researchers is required by most scientific journals. (Here is an example of a research paper filled with mathematically impossible means.)

        • If the SD is mathematically impossible (online calculator): When researchers fraudulently "cook" their data, they may accidently give their data a mean and standard deviation that is mathematically impossible for a (normally distributed) strictly positive variable (because the "cooked" M and SD would mathematically require the strictly positive variable's range of data to include negative numbers). For a normally distributed sample of size of 25-70, this occurs when the SD is greater than one-half of the M; for a sample size of 70+, this occurs when the SD is greater than one-third of the M [using these formulas].

        • If the SD/M is very small (i.e., the variable's standard deviation is very small compared to the mean suggesting data smoothing).

        • If the SD's are almost identical (i.e., the variables have different means but almost identical standard deviations).

        • If the 4th digit of the values of the variables aren't uniformly distributed - since each should occur 10% of the time (Benford's Law).

        • If the researcher is legally prevented from publishing negative findings about a drug or therapy because that would violate the "nondisclosure of trade secrets" clause in the research contract (i.e., it is a "trade secret" that the drug or therapy is ineffective - hence this can not be "disclosed"). Approximately half of all registered clinical trials fail to publish their results.

        • If the researcher refuses to release his raw data to fellow researchers (so that they can check its validity). In order to be published in most scientific journals, a researcher must promise to share his raw data with fellow researchers. Thus a researcher's refusal to do so is almost a sure indicator of fraud.

        • If the research study's data contradicts the study's own conclusions - surprisingly, this often occurs.

    • Calling Bullshit In The Age of Big Data - "Bullshit is language, statistical figures, data graphics, and other forms of presentation intended to persuade by impressing and overwhelming a reader or listener, with a blatant disregard for truth and logical coherence." Reading the syllabus of this university course should be required reading for every student of mental health. This syllabus is absolutely fantastic!

    • Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals: Guidelines and Explanations - American Psychologist 1999

    • Not All Scientific Studies Are Created Equal - video

    • The efficacy of psychological, educational, and behavioral treatment

    • Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science

    • Psychologists grapple with validity of research

    • Industry sponsorship and research outcome (Review) - Cochrane Library

    • 'We've been deceived': Many clinical trial results are never published - (text and video)

    • Junk science misleading doctors and researchers

    • Junk science under spotlight after controversial firm buys Canadian journals

    • Medicine with a side of mysticism: Top hospitals promote unproven therapies - Are some doctors becoming modern witchdoctors?

    • When Evidence Says No, But Doctors Say Yes


    • Cochrane Reviews (the best evidence-based, standardized reviews available)

    Research Topics

    Schizotypal Personality Disorder - Latest Research (2016-2017)


    Back to top



    Which Behavioral Dimensions Are Involved?

    Research has shown that there are 5 major dimensions (the "Big 5 Factors") of personality disorders and other mental disorders. There are two free online personality tests that assess your personality in terms of the "Big 5 dimensions of personality". Although not computerized online, the Big Five Inventory (BFI) is a 44-item test often used in personality research.

    This website uses these 5 major dimensions of human behavior to describe all mental disorders. (This website adds one more dimension, "Physical Health", but our discussion will focus on the first 5 major dimensions.)

    These major dimensions of human behavior seem to represent the major dimensions whereby our early evolutionary ancestors chose their hunting companions or spouse. To maximize their chance for survival, our ancestors wanted companions who were agreeable, conscientious, intelligent, sociable, emotionally stable, and physically healthy. Their chance for survival was decreased if their companions were disagreeable, disorganized, close-minded, reserved, or nervous.

      Dimensions of of Human Behavior That Are Abnormal In Schizotypal Personality Disorder

      THE POSITIVE SIDE OF THE "BIG 5" PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS THE NEGATIVE SIDE OF THE "BIG 5" PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS THIS DISORDER
      Agreeableness Antagonism       Antagonism
      Conscientiousness Disinhibition       Conscientiousness
      Intellect Decreased Intellect       Decreased Intellect (Pre-Psychotic)
      Sociability (Extraversion) Detachment       Detachment
      Emotional Stability Negative Emotion       Emotional Stability

    The 5 Major Dimensions of Mental Illness

    The Big 5 Factors or dimensions of mental illness each has a healthy side and an unhealthy side. Thus the Big 5 Factors are: (1) Agreeableness vs. Antagonism, (2) Conscientiousness vs. Disinhibition, (3) Intellect vs. Decreased Intellect, (4) Sociability (Extraversion) vs. Detachment (Introversion), and (5) Emotional Stability vs. Negative Emotion.

    The Following Will Only Discuss The Dimensions of Mental Illness That Are Abnormal In This Disorder

    The problems that are diagnostic of this disorder are highlighted in   Pink  . Other problems that are often seen in this disorder are highlighted in   Yellow  .



    Treatment Goals for Antagonism In Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    AGREEABLENESS VS. ANTAGONISM
    .
    AGREEABLENESS
    .
    Description: Agreeableness is synonymous with compassion and politeness. Compassion reflects empathy, sympathy, and caring for others. Politeness reflects respect for others. Agreeable people are interested in others, and they make people feel comfortable. The Agreeableness dimension measures the behaviors that are central to the concept of JUSTICE and equality (fair, honest, and helpful behavior - living in harmony with others, neither harming nor allowing harm). Justice is then the public manifestation of love. High agreeableness is associated with better: longevity, helping others, giving to charity, job [team] performance, and marital success. (This dimension appears to measure the behaviors that differentiate friend from foe.)
    Descriptors: Compassionate, polite, warm, friendly, helpful, unselfish, generous, modest.
    Language Characteristics: Pleasure talk, agreement, compliments, empathy, few personal attacks, few commands or global rejections, many self-references, few negations, few swear words, few threats, many insight words.
    Research: Higher scores on Agreeableness are associated with deeper relationships. *MRI research found that Agreeableness was associated with increased volume in regions that process information about the intentions and mental states of other individuals.
    "I am helpful and unselfish with others."
    "I have a forgiving nature."
    "I am generally trusting."
    "I am considerate and kind to almost everyone."
    "I like to cooperate with others."
    "I don't find fault with others."
    "I don't start quarrels with others."
    "I am not cold and aloof."
    "I am not rude to others."
    "I feel other's emotions."
    "I inquire about others' well-being."
    "I sympathize with others' feelings."
    "I take an interest in other people's lives."
    "I like to do things for others."
    "I respect authority."
    "I hate to seem pushy."
    "I avoid imposing my will on others."
    "I rarely put people under pressure."
    .
    ANTAGONISM
    .
    Description: Antagonism is synonymous with competition and aggression. Antagonistic people are self-interested, and do not see others positively.
    Descriptors: Manipulative, deceitful, grandiose, callous, disrespectful, unfriendly, suspicious, uncooperative, malicious.
    Language Characteristics: Problem talk, dissatisfaction, little empathy, many personal attacks, many commands or global rejections, few self-references, many negations, many swear words, many threats, little politeness, few insight words.
    .
    * Callousness:
    "It's no big deal if I hurt other people's feelings."
    "Being rude and unfriendly is just a part of who I am."
    "I often get into physical fights."
    "I enjoy making people in control look stupid."
    "I am not interested in other people's problems."
    "I can't be bothered with other's needs."
    "I am indifferent to the feelings of others."
    "I don't have a soft side."
    "I take no time for others."
    .
    * Deceitfulness:
    "I don't hesitate to cheat if it gets me ahead."
    "Lying comes easily to me."
    "I use people to get what I want."
    "People don't realize that I'm flattering them to get something."
    .
    * Manipulativeness:
    "I use people to get what I want."
    "It is easy for me to take advantage of others."
    "I'm good at conning people."
    "I am out for my own personal gain."
    .
    * Grandiosity:
    "I'm better than almost everyone else."
    "I often have to deal with people who are less important than me."
    "To be honest, I'm just more important than other people."
    "I deserve special treatment."
    .
    * Suspiciousness:
    "It seems like I'm always getting a “raw deal” from others."
    "I suspect that even my so-called 'friends' betray me a lot."
    "Others would take advantage of me if they could."
    "Plenty of people are out to get me."
    "I'm always on my guard for someone trying to trick or harm me."
    .
    * Hostility:
    "I am easily angered."
    "I get irritated easily by all sorts of things."
    "I am usually pretty hostile."
    "I always make sure I get back at people who wrong me."
    "I resent being told what to do, even by people in charge."
    "I insult people."
    "I seek conflict."
    "I love a good fight."
    .
    ("Agreeableness vs. Antagonism" modified from "PID-5" by Kreuger RF, Derringer J, Markon KE, Watson D, Skodol AE and Between facets and domains: 10 aspects of the Big Five)
    *MRI Research: Testing predictions from personality neuroscience. Brain structure and the big five.



    Treatment Goals for Decreased Intellect In Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    INTELLECT VS. DECREASED INTELLECT
    .
    INTELLECT (OPEN-MINDED)
    .
    Description: Intellect (or "Openness To Experience") is synonymous with being open-minded and creative. The Intellect dimension measures the behaviors that are central to the concept of WISDOM - having curiosity, experience, knowledge, and good judgment. (This dimension appears to measure the behaviors that differentiate open-minded from close-minded individuals.) Open-minded people are usually creative, sophisticated, intellectual, curious and interested in art. Their curiosity propels them to try new things, and ask novel questions. High intellect is associated with better: longevity, school and creative performance.
    Descriptors: Receptive to new ideas, curious, imaginative, creative, unconventional
    Language Characteristics: Many positive emotion words (e.g. happy, good), high meaning elaboration, more perspective, politeness, few self-references, complex sentence constructions, few causation words, many inclusive words (e.g. with, and), few third person pronouns, many tentative words (e.g. maybe, guess), many insight words (e.g. think, see), few filler words and within-utterance pauses, stronger uncommon verbs.
    Research: Higher scores on Intellect are associated with greater creativity and general intelligence. *MRI research found that Intellect did not have any significant correlation with the volume of any localized brain structure.
    Relationship To General Intelligence: Research has shown that Intellect can be separated into 2 factors: Openness and Intellect. Intellect was independently associated with general intelligence (g) and with verbal and nonverbal intelligence about equally. Openness was independently associated only with verbal intelligence.
    Example: This video shows how we see what we want to see. What we pay attention to (or what we believe about the world) blinds us to reality. (Exit YouTube after first video.)
    "I am original, and come up with new ideas."
    "I am curious about many different things."
    "I am quick to understand things."
    "I can handle a lot of information."
    "I like to solve complex problems."
    "I have a rich vocabulary."
    "I think quickly and formulate ideas clearly."
    "I enjoy the beauty of nature."
    "I believe in the importance of art."
    "I love to reflect on things."
    "I get deeply immersed in music."
    "I see beauty in things that others might not notice."
    "I need a creative outlet."
    .
    DECREASED INTELLECT (CLOSED-MINDED)
    .
    Description: Decreased Intellect (or "Closed To Experience") is synonymous with being closed-minded and uncreative. Decreased Intellect is associated with narrow-mindedness, unimaginativeness and ignorance.
    Descriptors: Narrow-minded, conservative, ignorant, simple
    Language Characteristics: Few positive emotion words, low meaning elaboration, less perspective, less politeness, few positive emotion words, many self-references, simple sentence construction, many causation words (e.g. because, hence), many third person pronouns, few tentative words, few insight words, many filler words and within-utterance pauses, milder verbs.
    .
    "I prefer work that is routine."
    "I have difficulty understanding abstract ideas."
    "I think slowly."
    "People find it hard to follow my logic or understand my thoughts."
    "I avoid philosophical discussions."
    "I avoid difficult reading material."
    "People find it hard to follow my logic or understand my thoughts."
    "I have few artistic interests."
    "I seldom notice the emotional aspects of paintings and pictures."
    "I do not like poetry."
    "I seldom get lost in thought."
    "I seldom daydream."
    .
    COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT
    .
    * Memory Impairment:
    "I have difficulty learning new things, or remembering things that happened a few days ago."
    "I often forget a conversation I had the day before."
    "I often forget to take my medications, or to keep my appointments."
    .
    .
    * Impaired Reasoning:
    "My judgment or ability to solve problems isn't good."
    "I have difficulty understanding abstract ideas."
    "I think slowly."
    "People find it hard to follow my logic or understand my thoughts."
    .
    PSYCHOTICISM
    .
    * Eccentricity:
    "I often have thoughts that make sense to me but that other people say are strange."
    "Others seem to think I'm quite odd or unusual."
    "My thoughts are strange and unpredictable."
    "My thoughts often don’t make sense to others."
    "Other people seem to think my behavior is weird."
    "I have several habits that others find eccentric or strange."
    "My thoughts often go off in odd or unusual directions."
    .
    * Unusual Beliefs and Experiences:
    "I often have unusual experiences, such as sensing the presence of someone who isn't actually there."
    "I've had some really weird experiences that are very difficult to explain."
    "I have seen things that weren’t really there."
    "I have some unusual abilities, like sometimes knowing exactly what someone is thinking."
    "I sometimes have heard things that others couldn’t hear."
    "Sometimes I can influence other people just by sending my thoughts to them."
    "I often see unusual connections between things that most people miss."
    .
    * Perceptual Dysregulation:
    "Things around me often feel unreal, or more real than usual."
    "Sometimes I get this weird feeling that parts of my body feel like they're dead or not really me."
    "It's weird, but sometimes ordinary objects seem to be a different shape than usual."
    "Sometimes I feel 'controlled' by thoughts that belong to someone else."
    "Sometimes I think someone else is removing thoughts from my head."
    "I have periods in which I feel disconnected from the world or from myself."
    "I can have trouble telling the difference between dreams and waking life."
    "I often 'zone out' and then suddenly come to and realize that a lot of time has passed."
    "Sometimes when I look at a familiar object, it's somehow like I'm seeing it for the first time."
    "People often talk about me doing things I don't remember at all."
    "I often can't control what I think about."
    "I often see vivid dream-like images when I’m falling asleep or waking up."
    .
    ("OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE vs. BEING CLOSED TO EXPERIENCE" modified from "PID-5" by Kreuger RF, Derringer J, Markon KE, Watson D, Skodol AE and Between facets and domains: 10 aspects of the Big Five)
    *MRI Research: Testing predictions from personality neuroscience. Brain structure and the big five.



    Treatment Goals for Detachment In Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    SOCIABILITY (EXTRAVERSION) VS. DETACHMENT
    .
    SOCIABILITY
    .
    Description: Sociability (Extraversion) is synonymous with being enthusiastic and assertive. Assertiveness encompasses traits relating to leadership, dominance, and drive. Enthusiasm encompasses both sociability and the tendency to experience and express positive emotion. Extraverts tend to engage in social interaction; they are enthusiastic, risk-taking, talkative and assertive. The Extraversion dimension measures the behaviors that are central to the concept of SOCIABILITY - seeking and enjoying companionship. High sociability is associated with better: longevity, leadership, job [sales] performance. (This dimension appears to measure the behaviors that differentiate approach from avoidance.)
    Descriptors: Sociable, gregarious, reward-seeking, talkative.
    Language Characteristics: Many topics, higher verbal output, think out loud, pleasure talk, agreement, compliment, positive emotion words, sympathetic, concerned about hearer (but not empathetic), simple constructions, few unfilled pauses, few negations, few tentative words, informal language, many swear words, exaggeration (e.g. "I'm really smart" ), many words related to humans (e.g. "man", "pal"). poor vocabulary.
    Research: Higher scores on Sociability (extraversion) are associated with greater happiness and broader social connections. *MRI research found that Sociability (extraversion) was associated with increased volume of medial orbitofrontal cortex, a region involved in processing reward information.
    "I'm talkative"
    "I'm not reserved."
    "I'm full of energy."
    "I generate a lot of enthusiasm."
    "I'm not quiet."
    "I have an assertive personality."
    "I'm not shy or inhibited."
    "I am outgoing and sociable."
    "I make friends easily."
    "I warm up quickly to others."
    "I show my feelings when I'm happy."
    "I have a lot of fun."
    "I laugh a lot."
    "I take charge."
    "I have a strong personality."
    "I know how to captivate people."
    "I see myself as a good leader."
    "I can talk others into doing things."
    "I am the first to act."
    .
    Attention Seeking
    .
    "I like to draw attention to myself."
    "I crave attention."
    "I do things to make sure people notice me."
    "I do things so that people just have to admire me."
    "My behavior is often bold and grabs peoples' attention."
    .
    DETACHMENT
    .
    Description: Detachment is synonymous with being reserved and quiet.
    Descriptors: Withdrawn, anhedonic (pleasureless), intimacy avoiding, detached, shy, passive, solitary, moody
    Language Characteristics: Single topic, doesn't think out loud, problem talk, dissatisfaction, negative emotion words, not sympathetic, elaborated sentence constructions, many unfilled pauses, formal language, many negations, many tentative words (e.g. maybe, guess), few swear words, little exaggeration, few words related to humans, rich vocabulary.
    .
    * Social Withdrawal:
    "I don’t like to get too close to people."
    "I don't deal with people unless I have to."
    "I'm not interested in making friends."
    "I don’t like spending time with others."
    "I say as little as possible when dealing with people."
    "I keep to myself."
    "I am hard to get to know."
    "I reveal little about myself."
    "I do not have an assertive personality."
    "I lack the talent for influencing people."
    "I wait for others to lead the way."
    "I hold back my opinions."
    .
    * Intimacy Avoidance:
    "I steer clear of romantic relationships."
    "I prefer to keep romance out of my life."
    "I prefer being alone to having a close romantic partner."
    "I'm just not very interested in having sexual relationships."
    "II break off relationships if they start to get close."
    .
    * Loss of Interest or Pleasure:
    "I often feel like nothing I do really matters."
    "I almost never enjoy life."
    "Nothing seems to make me feel good."
    "Nothing seems to interest me very much."
    "I almost never feel happy about my day-to-day activities."
    "I rarely get enthusiastic about anything."
    "I don't get as much pleasure out of things as others seem to."
    .
    * Restricted Emotions:
    "I don't show emotions strongly."
    "I don't get emotional."
    "I never show emotions to others."
    "I don't have very long-lasting emotional reactions to things."
    "People tell me it's difficult to know what I'm feeling."
    "I am not a very enthusiastic person."
    .
    ("Sociability vs. Detachment" modified from "PID-5" by Kreuger RF, Derringer J, Markon KE, Watson D, Skodol AE and Between facets and domains: 10 aspects of the Big Five)
    *MRI Research: Testing predictions from personality neuroscience. Brain structure and the big five.


    The "Big 5 Factors" of Personality as Shown In Dogs

    The same "Big 5 Factors" of personality found in humans can be found in dogs. This makes sense because dogs, like humans, are a social species.



    AGREEABLENESS VS. ANTAGONISM
    .
    Agreeableness ("Friend")
    .
    Dog is friendly towards unfamiliar people.
    Dog is friendly towards other dogs.
    When off leash, dog comes immediately when called.
    Dog willingly shares toys with other dogs.
    Dog leaves food or objects alone when told to do so.
    .
    Antagonism ("Foe")
    .
    Dog is dominant over other dogs.
    Dog is assertive with other dogs (e.g., if in a home with other dogs, when greeting).
    Dog behaves aggressively towards unfamiliar people.
    Dog shows aggression when nervous or fearful.
    Dog aggressively guards coveted items (e.g., stolen item, treats, food bowl).
    Dog is quick to sneak out through open doors, gates.

    CONSCIENTIOUSNESS VS. DISINHIBITION
    .
    Conscientiousness ("Self-Controlled")
    .
    Dog works at tasks (e.g., getting treats out of a dispenser, shredding toys) until entirely finished.
    Dog works hard all day herding or pulling a sleigh (if a "working dog" on the farm or in the snow). *
    Dog is curious.
    .
    Disinhibition ("Disinhibited")
    .
    Dog is boisterous.
    Dog seeks constant activity.
    Dog is very excitable around other dogs.

    INTELLECT VS. DECREASED INTELLECT
    .
    Open To Experience ("Open-Minded")
    .
    Dog is able to focus on a task in a distracting situation (e.g., loud or busy places, around other dogs).
    .
    Closed To Experience ("Closed-Minded")
    .
    Dog is slow to respond to corrections.
    Dog ignores commands.
    Dog is slow to learn new tricks or tasks.

    SOCIABILITY (EXTRAVERSION) VS. DETACHMENT
    .
    Sociability ("Approach")
    .
    Dog is attention seeking (e.g., nuzzling, pawing or jumping up on family members looking for attention and physical contact).*
    Dog seeks companionship from people.
    Dog is affectionate.
    .
    Detachment ("Avoidance")
    .
    Dog is aloof.
    Dog gets bored in play quickly.
    Dog is lethargic.

    EMOTIONAL STABILITY VS. NEGATIVE EMOTION
    .
    Emotional Stability ("Safety")
    .
    Dog tends to be calm.
    Dog is relaxed when greeting people.
    Dog is confident.
    Dog adapts easily to new situations and environments.
    .
    Negative Emotion ("Danger")
    .
    Dog is anxious.
    Dog is shy.
    Dog behaves fearfully towards unfamiliar people.
    Dog exhibits fearful behaviors when restrained.
    Dog avoids other dogs.
    Dog behaves fearfully towards other dogs.
    Dog behaves submissively (e.g., rolls over, avoids eye contact, licks lips) when greeting other dogs.
    .
    Modified from Jones, A. C. (2009). Development and validation of a dog personality questionnaire. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Texas, Austin.

    * New items added by Phillip W. Long MD


    Personality Difference Between Dogs and Humans

    Dogs and humans are strikingly similar on 4 of the "Big 5 Factors" of personality. However, dogs and humans are quite different on the "Conscientiousness" factor - because the canine brain is designed for hunting, not building. That's why dogs don't build dog houses.

    The Brain and the "Big-5 Factors" of Personality In A Social Species

    The "Big-5 Factors" of personality represent basic brain functions in social species. For example, when a male approaches a female, the female must: (1) decide whether the male is friend or foe ["Agreeableness"], (2) decide if this represents safety or danger ["Emotional Stability"], (3) decide whether to approach or avoid him ["Sociability"], (4) decide whether to be self-controlled or disinhibited ["Conscientiousness"], and (5) learn from this experience ["Openness to Experience"].

    The "Big-5 Factors" of Human and Cat Personality

    Cats are a social species, but less social than dogs. Nevertheless, cats also show the "Big 5 Factors" of personality.



    The "Big 5" Dimensions of Personality and Personality Disorders

    The following diagram shows the relationship between the "Big 5" dimensions of personality and personality disorders. This diagram is based on the research of Sam Gosling, Jason Rentfrow, and Bill Swann, Gerard Saucier, Colin G. DeYoung, and Douglas Samuel and Thomas Widiger.


    Enlarge Image


    Enlarge Image

    "Big-5" Personality Dimension of Low Extraversion (Introversion)

    Schizoid and Schizotypal Personality Disorders don't seem to fit into a classification of personality disorders using the "Big 5" personality dimensions. On personality testing, neither of these two personality disorders scores abnormally on the "Big 5" personality dimensions. At best, they score low on Extraversion, but not significantly low.


    Enlarge Image

    "High Extraversion"

    The (BFAS) "Big-5" personality dimension of "High Extraversion" is associated with:
    • Make friends easily

    • Warm up quickly to others

    • Show my feelings when I'm happy

    • Have a lot of fun

    • Laugh a lot

    • Take charge

    • Have a strong personality

    • Know how to captivate people

    • Can talk others into doing things

    • See myself as a good leader

    • Am the first to act

    "Low Extraversion (Introversion)"

    The (BFAS) "Big-5" personality dimension of "Low Extraversion (Introversion)" is associated with:
    • Am hard to get to know

    • Keep others at a distance

    • Reveal little about myself

    • Rarely get caught up in the excitement

    • Am not a very enthusiastic person

    • Lack the talent for influencing people

    • Wait for others to lead the way

    • Hold back my opinions

    • Do not have an assertive personality

    Back to top


    Internet Mental Health © 1995-2018 Phillip W. Long, M.D.