Internet Mental Health

HISTRIONIC PERSONALITY DISORDER


WARNING:



President Trump is about to start a nuclear war with North Korea. New UN sanctions have cut North Korea's oil and money supply - hence its regime would soon fall without war. Both China and Russia have promised to defend North Korea if America attacks first. So America attacking North Korea could start a nuclear WW III. Nevertheless, Trump will attack North Korea as a distraction from his possible impeachment. US pro-war propaganda is becoming hysterical. This propaganda lies in stating that "food supplies would be decimated by radiation and up to 90% of the population would die within a year" after a nuclear bomb was exploded high in the atmosphere over America. The truth is that an electromagnetic pulse from such a high atmospheric nuclear explosion could destroy electronic devices for hundreds of miles beneath the blast. But the resulting electromagnetc pulse from such a blast is not lethal to humans. In the 1950s and 1960s, thousands of American soldiers were experimentally placed in trenches just a few miles from ground nuclear explosions, and the resulting electromagnetic pulse did not kill one of these American soldier "guinea pigs". However, this high radiation exposure decades later caused a dramatic increase in cancer in these human guinea pigs. The high radiation exposure from the Chernobyl Disaster did not kill the surrounding vegetation or animals.

By 2020 Climate Change Will Be Irreversible

By 2030 60% Of Tropical Rainforest Will Be Destroyed

Climate Change This Century Will Destroy India and Pakistan

Why Is This Warning On A Mental Health Website?

No such warning has ever been published on this website since its creation in 1995. However, the very high probability of a nuclear WW III, and the certainty of irreversible climate change in the next few years requires that this warning be posted. If Trump starts WW III, or does nothing to stop climate change, mental illness will be the least of our worries.





Expanded Quality of Life Scale For Histrionic Personality Disorder

Internet Mental Health Quality of Life Scale

Big 5 Factors Of Mental Illness And Code For This Disorder
(The "6th Big Factor" of Mental Health, "Physical Health", Is Coded Normal or Green)

  • Individuals with Histrionic Personality Disorder are emotionally dramatic and cognitively impressionistic, sexually provocative, and interpersonally suggestible, idealizing of admired others, and paradoxically both intensely and superficially attached.

  • Since childhood or adolescence, was attention-seeking, harmfully impulsive, and (in adulthood) inappropriately seductive or promiscuous.

  • Not due to a medical or substance use disorder.

Prediction

    Can last for years or be lifelong

Problems

Occupational-Economic Problems:

  • Causes significant impairment in academic, occupational and/or social functioning

  • Works poorly with others

Enthusiastic, Assertive (High Extraversion):

    Inappropriate Attention-Seeking:

    • Is uncomfortable in situations in which she is not the center of attention

    • Consistently uses physical appearance to draw attention to herself

    • Interaction with others is often characterized by inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior

    • Shows self-dramatization, theatricality, and exaggerated expression of emotion

    • Displays rapidly shifting and shallow expression of emotions

    • Has a style of speech that is excessively impressionistic and lacking in detail

    • Is suggestible, i.e., easily influenced by others or circumstances

    • Considers relationships to be more intimate than they actually are



Explanation Of Terms And Symbols

Internet Mental Health Quality of Life Scale


SAPAS Personality Screening Test

Individuals with this disorder would answer "Yes" to the red questions:

      In general, do you have difficulty making and keeping friends?
      Would you normally describe yourself as a loner?
      In general, do you trust other people? (No)
      Do you normally lose your temper easily?
      Are you normally an impulsive sort of person?
      Are you normally a worrier?
      In general, do you depend on others a lot?
      In general, are you a perfectionist?



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Click Here For Free Diagnosis

Limitations of Self-Diagnosis

Self-diagnosis of this disorder is often inaccurate. Accurate diagnosis of this disorder requires assessment by a qualified practitioner trained in psychiatric diagnosis and evidence-based treatment.

However, if no such professional is available, our free computerized diagnosis is usually accurate when completed by an informant who knows the patient well. Computerized diagnosis is less accurate when done by patients (because they often lack insight).

Example Of Our Computer Generated Diagnostic Assessment

Histrionic Personality Disorder 301.50

This diagnosis is based on the following findings:

  • Is uncomfortable in situations in which she was not the center of attention (still present)

  • Inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior. (still present)

  • Displays rapidly shifting and shallow expression of emotions (still present)

  • Consistently uses physical appearance to draw attention to herself (still present)

  • Has a style of speech is excessively impressionistic and lacking in detail (still present)

  • Shows self-dramatization, theatricality and exaggerated expression of emotion (still present)

  • Is suggestible (i.e., easily influenced by others or circumstances) (still present)

  • Considers relationships to be more intimate than they actually are (still present)

Treatment Goals:

  • Goal: stop trying to the center of attention.
    If this problem persists: She will alienate people by her constant demands for attention. When not the center of attention, she will continue to do something dramatic (e.g., make up stories, create a scene) to draw the focus of attention to herself.

  • Goal: stop being inappropriately sexually provocative or seductive.
    If this problem persists: She will alienate same-sexed friends because of her sexually provocative behavior towards her friend's romantic partners.

  • Goal: stop being so emotional.
    If this problem persists: She will alienate others with her shallow and rapidly shifting emotional expression.

  • Goal: dress more modestly.
    If this problem persists: She will continue to use her physical appearance to draw attention to herself. She will continue being overly concerned with impressing others by her appearance and expending an excessive amount of time, energy, and money on clothes and grooming.

  • Goal: stop expressing strong opinions without supporting evidence.
    If this problem persists: She will alienate others with her strong opinions that are expressed with dramatic flair, but without supporting facts and details.

  • Goal: be less dramatic and theatrical.
    If this problem persists: She will embarrass others by her excessive public display of emotions. Others will accuse her of faking her feelings because her emotions seem to be turned on and off too quickly to be deeply felt.

  • Goal: stop being so suggestible.
    If this problem persists: Her opinions and feelings will continue to be easily influenced by others and by current fads. She must stop being overly trusting, especially of strong authority figures who will magically solve her problems.

  • Goal: stop considering relationships to be more intimate than they actually are.
    If this problem persists: She will continue to think that mere acquaintances are actually close friends, or believe that casual relationships are more romantically intimate than they actually are.


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Histrionic Personality Disorder F60.4 - ICD10 Description, World Health Organization

Histrionic Personality Disorder is characterized by shallow and labile affectivity, self-dramatization, theatricality, exaggerated expression of emotions, suggestibility, egocentricity, self-indulgence, lack of consideration for others, easily hurt feelings, and continuous seeking for appreciation, excitement and attention.

ICD-10 International Personality Disorder Examination Screening Questions

  • I show my feelings for everyone to see.

  • I'm too easily influenced by what goes on around me.

  • My feelings are like the weather; they're always changing.

  • I like to dress so I stand out in a crowd.

  • I would rather not be the center of attention (False).

  • I have a reputation for being a flirt.

ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria (For Research)

    A. The general criteria of personality disorder must be met:

    • Evidence that the individual's characteristic and enduring patterns of inner experience and behavior deviate markedly as a whole from the culturally expected and accepted range (or 'norm').

    • The deviation must manifest itself pervasively as behavior that is inflexible, maladaptive, or otherwise dysfunctional across a broad range of personal and social situations (i.e. not being limited to one specific 'triggering' stimulus or situation).

    • There is personal distress, or adverse impact on the social environment, or both, clearly attributable to the behavior.

    • There must be evidence that the deviation is stable and of long duration, having its onset in late childhood or adolescence.

    • The deviation cannot be explained as a manifestation or consequence of other adult mental disorders.

    • Organic brain disease, injury, or dysfunction must be excluded as possible cause of the deviation.

    B. At least four of the following must be present:

    • Self-dramatization, theatricality, or exaggerated expression of emotions.
        (E.g., "I show my feelings for everyone to see.")

    • Suggestibility, easily influenced by others or by circumstances.
        (E.g., "I'm too easily influenced by what goes on around me.")

    • Shallow and labile affectivity.
        (E.g., "My feelings are like the weather; they are always changing.")

    • Continually seeks excitement and being the centre of attention.
        (E.g., "I like being the center of attention.")

    • Inappropriately seductive in appearance or behavior.
        (E.g., "I have a reputation for being a flirt.")

    • Overly concerned with physical attractiveness.
        (E.g., "I like to dress so that I stand out in a crowd.")

    • Comments: Egocentricity, self-indulgence, continuous longing for appreciation, lack of consideration for others, feelings that are easily hurt, and persistent manipulative behavior complete the clinical picture, but are not required for the diagnosis.

Histrionic Personality Disorder - Diagnostic Criteria, American Psychiatric Association

An individual diagnosed with Histrionic Personality Disorder needs to show at least 5 of the following criteria:

  • Is uncomfortable in situations in which she is not the center of attention.

  • Interaction with others is often characterized by inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior.

  • Displays rapidly shifting and shallow expression of emotions.

  • Consistently uses physical appearance to draw attention to herself.

  • Has a style of speech that is excessively impressionistic and lacking in detail.

  • Shows self-dramatization, theatricality, and exaggerated expression of emotion.

  • Is suggestible, i.e., easily influenced by others or circumstances.

  • Considers relationships to be more intimate than they actually are.

  • This enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior must deviate markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture.

  • This enduring pattern is inflexible and pervasive across a broad range of personal and social situations.

  • This enduring pattern leads to clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

  • Empirically Derived Taxonomy for Personality Diagnosis: Histrionic Personality Disorder

    (This section uses an alternative classification system to that of the American Psychiatric Association)

    These individuals:

    • Are emotionally dramatic and prone to express emotion in exaggerated and theatrical ways.

    • Their reactions tend to be based on emotion rather than reflection, and their cognitive style tends to be glib, global, and impressionistic (e.g., missing details, glossing over inconsistencies, mispronouncing names).

    • Their beliefs and expectations seem cliche or stereotypical, as if taken from storybooks or movies, and they seem naive or innocent, seeming to know less about the ways of the world than would be expected.

    • Are sexually seductive or provocative. They use their physical attractiveness to an excessive degree to gain attention and notice, and they behave in ways that seem to epitomize gender stereotypes. They may be flirtatious, preoccupied with sexual conquest, prone to lead people on, or promiscuous.

    • Become involved in romantic or sexual "triangles" and may be drawn to people who are already attached or sought by someone else.

    • Have difficulty directing both tender feelings and sexual feelings toward the same person, tending to view others as either virtuous or sexy, but not both.

    • Are suggestible or easily influenced, and idealize and identify with admired others to the point of taking on their attitudes or mannerisms.

    • Fantasize about ideal, perfect love, yet tend to choose sexual or romantic partners who are emotionally unavailable, or who seem inappropriate (e.g., in terms of age or social or economic status).

    • Become attached quickly and intensely; however, beneath the surface, they often fear being alone, rejected, or abandoned.

      • (Editor's Note: These behaviors would be considered "normal" in 14-year-olds just "discovering" the opposite sex. Most adolescents mature out of their personality disorders within 2 years. Thus the question is: why do these maladaptive adolescent behaviors persist into adulthood in Histrionic Personality Disorder?)


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    Diagnostic Features

    Individuals with Histrionic Personality Disorder grow up having emotional instability and attention-seeking. The core features of this disorder are: (1) negative emotion (Emotional Instability), and (2) antagonism (attention-seeking, manipulativeness). This disorder is only diagnosed if: (1) it begins no later than early adulthood, (2) these behaviors occur at home, work, and in the community, and (3) these behaviors lead to clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Histrionic Personality Disorder should not be diagnosed if its symptoms can be better explained as due to another mental disorder, Substance Use Disorder, or another medical condition (e.g., head trauma).

    Their expression of emotion is overly dramatic and theatrical ("drama queen"). They may embarrass friends by their excessive public display of emotions.

    Individuals with this disorder may have difficulty achieving emotional intimacy in romantic relationships. Without being aware of it, they often act out a role (e.g., "victim" or "princess"). They may seek to control their partner through emotional manipulation or seductiveness on one level, whereas displaying a marked dependency on them at another level.

    Individuals with this disorder often have impaired relationships with same-sex friends because of their sexually provocative behavior or their demands for constant attention. They crave novelty, stimulation, and excitement and have a tendency to become bored with their usual routine. Often old relationships are neglected to make way for the excitement of new relationships. Although they often initiate a job or project with great enthusiasm, their interest may lag quickly.

    Like all personality disorders, Histrionic Personality Disorder is a deeply ingrained and enduring behavior pattern, manifesting as an inflexible response to a broad range of personal and social situations. This behavior represents an extreme or significant deviation from the way in which the average individual in a given culture relates to others. This behavior pattern tends to be stable.

      Warning: Self-diagnosis of this disorder is often inaccurate. Accurate diagnosis of this disorder requires assessment by a qualified practitioner trained in psychiatric diagnosis and evidence-based treatment. However, if no such professional is available, our free computerized diagnosis is usually accurate when completed by an informant who knows the patient well. Computerized diagnosis is less accurate when done by patients (because they often lack insight).

    Complications

    The actual risk of suicide is not known, but individuals with Histrionic Personality Disorder are at increased risk for attention-seeking suicidal gestures or threats.

    Comorbidity

    Some other disorders frequently occur with this disorder:

      Non-Personality Disorders

              Depressive Disorders:
        • Major Depressive Disorder
              Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders:
        • Somatic Symptom Disorder, Conversion Disorder (Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder)

      Personality Disorders

              Dependent Personality Disorder

              Antisocial Personality Disorder

              Borderline Personality Disorder

              Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    Associated Laboratory Findings

    No laboratory test has been found to be diagnostic of this disorder.

    Prevalence

    The frequency of Histrionic Personality Disorder is equal in males and females, and this disorder is present in about 1.8% of the general population (and 10%-15% of psychiatric outpatients).

    Controlled Clinical Trials Of Therapy

    Click here for a list of all the controlled clinical trials of therapy for this disorder.

    Psychotherapy

    The effectiveness of psychotherapy for Histrionic Personality Disorder is unknown because there are no randomized controlled trials of therapy. The treatment of this disorder is very similar to that of Borderline Personality Disorder. These attention-seeking, impulsive individuals need to have a long-term therapist or mentor to establish a stable, supportive relationship in which clear and consistent boundaries are established. This therapist or mentor must have the patience and strength to withstand the patient's many crises and limit-testing episodes. Communication should always be clear, honest, optimistic and directed towards teaching more mature coping skills.

    Pharmacotherapy

    There are currently no medications approved by the FDA to treat this disorder. Vitamins, nutritional supplements, and special diets are all ineffective for all Personality Disorders.

    A Dangerous Cult


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    Videos


    Stories

    Rating Scales

    Histrionic Traits

    Individuals with Histrionic Personality Disorder must be the center of attention and "the life of the party". They are overly concerned with impressing others by their appearance. They are highly suggestible, and easily influenced by others and by fads. They are hypersensitive to criticism. They are impulsive, excitement seeking, reckless, and seductive.

    Lack Of Social Skills In Personality Disorders

    There are certain social skills that are essential for healthy social functioning. Individuals with Histrionic Personality Disorder lack the essential social skills of genuineness, chastity, and caution. They lack emotional stability (that is also lacking in individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder) and cooperation/generosity (that is also lacking in Narcissistic Personality Disorder).

      Social Skills That Are Lacking In Histrionic Personality Disorder

      SOCIAL SKILL HISTRIONIC PERSONALITY NORMAL
      Sincerity Attention-Seeking Being sincere (not overly theatrical or attention-seeking)
      Chastity Desire for casual or illicit sex Avoidance of casual sex ("one night stands" AND absence of intense desire for illicit sex)
      Caution Harmful impulsiveness Thinking carefully before acting or speaking; being cautious
      Emotional Stability Emotional instability (rapidly shifting and shallow expression of emotions) Having a predictable mood which does not quickly change

    Which Behavioral Dimensions Are Involved?

    Research has shown that there are 5 major dimensions (the "Big 5 Factors") of personality disorders and other mental disorders. There are two free online personality tests that assess your personality in terms of the "Big 5 dimensions of personality.

    This website uses these 5 major dimensions of human behavior to describe all mental disorders. (This website adds one more dimension, "Physical Health", but our discussion will focus on the first 5 major dimensions.)

    These 5 major dimensions of human behavior seem to represent 5 major dimensions whereby our early ancestors chose their hunting companions or spouse. To maximize their chance for survival, our ancestors wanted companions who were agreeable, conscientious, intelligent, enthusiastic, and calm.

    What Are The 5 Major Dimensions of Histrionic Personality Disorder?

    THE POSITIVE SIDE OF THE "BIG 5" PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS THE NEGATIVE SIDE OF THE "BIG 5" PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS DESCRIPTION (Where red = this disorder)
    Agreeableness Antagonism       Sympathetic, Kind vs. Critical, Quarrelsome
    Conscientiousness Disinhibition       Industrious, Orderly vs. Impulsive, Disorderly
    Openness To Experience Impaired Intellect       Open-Minded, Creative vs. Closed-Minded, Uncreative
    Sociability (Extraversion) Attention Seeking       Enthusiastic, Assertive vs. Reserved, Quiet
    Emotional Stability Negative Emotion       Calm, Emotionally Stable vs. Distressed, Easily Upset



    The 5 Major Dimensions of Mental Illness

    Our website uses the "Big 5 Factors" of personality as major dimensions of mental illness. Each of these 5 dimensions has a healthy side and an unhealthy side. The Big 5 Factors are: Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience, Sociability (Extraversion), and Emotional Stability. Our website adds an additional factor, Physical Health. However, our discussion will primarily focus on the traditional "Big 5 Factors".



    The Following Pictures Are of The International Space Station

    AGREEABLENESS VS. ANTAGONISM
    .
    Agreeableness (Sympathetic, Kind)
    .
    Description: Agreeableness is synonymous with compassion and politeness; whereas Antagonism is synonymous with competition and aggression. Compassion reflects empathy, sympathy, and caring for others. Politeness reflects respect for others’ needs and desires and a tendency to refrain from aggression. The Agreeableness dimension measures the behaviors that are central to the concept of LOVE and JUSTICE.
    Descriptors: Compassionate, polite, kind, sympathetic, appreciative, affectionate, soft-hearted, warm, generous, trusting, helpful, forgiving, pleasant, good-natured, friendly, cooperative, gentle, unselfish, praising, sensitive.
    MRI Research*: Agreeableness was associated with increased volume in regions that process information about the intentions and mental states of other individuals.
    "I am helpful and unselfish with others."
    "I have a forgiving nature."
    "I am generally trusting."
    "I am considerate and kind to almost everyone."
    "I like to cooperate with others."
    "I don't find fault with others."
    "I don't start quarrels with others."
    "I am not cold and aloof."
    "I am not rude to others."
    "I feel other's emotions."
    "I inquire about others' well-being."
    "I sympathize with others' feelings."
    "I take an interest in other people's lives."
    "I like to do things for others."
    "I respect authority."
    "I hate to seem pushy."
    "I avoid imposing my will on others."
    "I rarely put people under pressure."
    .
    Antagonism (Critical, Quarrelsome)
    .
    * Callousness:
    "It's no big deal if I hurt other people's feelings."
    "Being rude and unfriendly is just a part of who I am."
    "I often get into physical fights."
    "I enjoy making people in control look stupid."
    "I am not interested in other people's problems."
    "I can't be bothered with other's needs."
    "I am indifferent to the feelings of others."
    "I don't have a soft side."
    "I take no time for others."
    .
    * Deceitfulness:
    "I don't hesitate to cheat if it gets me ahead."
    "Lying comes easily to me."
    "I use people to get what I want."
    "People don't realize that I'm flattering them to get something."
    .
    * Manipulativeness:
    "I use people to get what I want."
    "It is easy for me to take advantage of others."
    "I'm good at conning people."
    "I am out for my own personal gain."
    .
    * Grandiosity:
    "I'm better than almost everyone else."
    "I often have to deal with people who are less important than me."
    "To be honest, I'm just more important than other people."
    "I deserve special treatment."
    .
    * Suspiciousness:
    "It seems like I'm always getting a “raw deal” from others."
    "I suspect that even my so-called 'friends' betray me a lot."
    "Others would take advantage of me if they could."
    "Plenty of people are out to get me."
    "I'm always on my guard for someone trying to trick or harm me."
    .
    * Hostility:
    "I am easily angered."
    "I get irritated easily by all sorts of things."
    "I am usually pretty hostile."
    "I always make sure I get back at people who wrong me."
    "I resent being told what to do, even by people in charge."
    "I insult people."
    "I seek conflict."
    "I love a good fight."
    .
    ("Agreeableness vs. Antagonism" modified from "PID-5" by Kreuger RF, Derringer J, Markon KE, Watson D, Skodol AE and Between facets and domains: 10 aspects of the Big Five)
    *MRI Research: Testing predictions from personality neuroscience. Brain structure and the big five.




    CONSCIENTIOUSNESS VS. DISINHIBITION
    .
    Conscientiousness (Industrious, Orderly)
    .
    Description: Conscientiousness is synonymous with being industrious and orderly; whereas Disinhibition is synonymous with being impulsive and disorderly. The Conscientiousness dimension measures the behaviors that are central to the concept of SELF-CONTROL.
    Descriptors: Self-disciplined, achievement-oriented, industrious, competent, reliable, responsible, orderly, deliberate, decisive
    MRI Research*: Conscientiousness was associated with increased volume in the lateral prefrontal cortex, a region involved in planning and the voluntary control of behavior.
    "I do a thorough job. I want everything to be 'just right'. I want every detail taken care of."
    "I am careful."
    "I am a reliable hard-worker."
    "I am organized. I follow a schedule and always know what I am doing."
    "I like order. I keep things tidy."
    "I see that rules are observed."
    "I do things efficiently. I get things done quickly."
    "I carry out my plans and finish what I start."
    "I am not easily distracted."
    .
    Rigid Perfectionism (Excessive Conscientiousness)
    .
    "Even though it drives other people crazy, I insist on absolute perfection in everything I do."
    "I simply won't put up with things being out of their proper places."
    "People complain about my need to have everything all arranged."
    "People tell me that I focus too much on minor details."
    "I have a strict way of doing things."
    "I postpone decisions."
    .
    Disinhibition (Impulsive, Disorderly)
    .
    * Irresponsibility:
    "I've skipped town to avoid responsibilities."
    "I just skip appointments or meetings if I'm not in the mood."
    "I'm often pretty careless with my own and others' things."
    "Others see me as irresponsible."
    "I make promises that I don't really intend to keep."
    "I often forget to pay my bills."
    .
    * Impulsivity:
    "I usually do things on impulse without thinking about what might happen as a result."
    "Even though I know better, I can't stop making rash decisions."
    "I feel like I act totally on impulse."
    "I'm not good at planning ahead."
    .
    * Distractibility:
    "I can't focus on things for very long."
    "I am easily distracted."
    "I have trouble pursuing specific goals even for short periods of time."
    "I can't achieve goals because other things capture my attention."
    "I often make mistakes because I don't pay close attention."
    "I waste my time ."
    "I find it difficult to get down to work."
    "I mess things up."
    "I don't put my mind on the task at hand."
    .
    * Reckless Risk Taking:
    "I like to take risks."
    "I have no limits when it comes to doing dangerous things."
    "People would describe me as reckless."
    "I don't think about getting hurt when I'm doing things that might be dangerous."
    .
    * Hyperactivity:
    "I move excessively (e.g., can't sit still; restless; always on the go)."
    "I'm starting lots more projects than usual or doing more risky things than usual."
    .
    * Over-Talkativeness:
    "I talk excessively (e.g., I butt into conversations; I complete people's sentences)."
    "Often I talk constantly and cannot be interrupted."
    .
    * Elation:
    "I feel much more happy, cheerful, or self-confident than usual."
    "I'm sleeping a lot less than usual, but I still have a lot of energy."
    .
    ("Conscientiousness vs. Disinhibition" modified from "PID-5" by Kreuger RF, Derringer J, Markon KE, Watson D, Skodol AE and Between facets and domains: 10 aspects of the Big Five)
    *MRI Research: Testing predictions from personality neuroscience. Brain structure and the big five.




    OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE vs. IMPAIRED INTELLECT
    .
    Open To Experience (Open-Minded, Creative)
    .
    Description: Open to Experience is synonymous with being open-minded and creative; whereas Closed to Experience is synonymous with being closed-minded and uncreative. The Openness to Experience dimension measures the behaviors that are central to the concept of WISDOM. Open-minded people ask "why?", are willing to challenge something that doesn't seem right, to listen to other people's opinions, and to be ever-ready to accept new truths, if the evidence is there. They are creative, flexible, and holistic in their thinking. They never stop questioning.
    Descriptors: Wide interests, imaginative, intelligent, original, insightful, curious, sophisticated, artistic, clever, inventive, sharp-witted, wise
    MRI Research*: Openness To Experience did not have any significant correlation with the volume of any brain structures. (This could suggest that "Openness To Experience", as defined here, is more a function of culture rather than of brain neurobiology.)
    Example: This video shows how we see what we want to see. What we pay attention to (or what we believe about the world) blinds us to reality. (Exit YouTube after first video.)
    "I am original, and come up with new ideas."
    "I am curious about many different things."
    "I am quick to understand things."
    "I can handle a lot of information."
    "I like to solve complex problems."
    "I have a rich vocabulary."
    "I think quickly and formulate ideas clearly."
    "I enjoy the beauty of nature."
    "I believe in the importance of art."
    "I love to reflect on things."
    "I get deeply immersed in music."
    "I see beauty in things that others might not notice."
    "I need a creative outlet."
    .
    Closed To Experience (Closed-Minded, Uncreative)
    .
    "I prefer work that is routine."
    "I have difficulty understanding abstract ideas."
    "I avoid philosophical discussions."
    "I avoid difficult reading material."
    "I learn things slowly."
    "I have few artistic interests."
    "I seldom notice the emotional aspects of paintings and pictures."
    "I do not like poetry."
    "I seldom get lost in thought."
    "I seldom daydream."
    .
    Cognitive Impairment
    .
    * Memory Impairment:
    "I have difficulty learning new things, or remembering things that happened a few days ago."
    "I often forget a conversation I had the day before."
    "I often forget to take my medications, or to keep my appointments."
    .
    .
    * Impaired Reasoning or Problem-Solving:
    "My judgment, planning, or problem-solving isn't good."
    "I lack creativity or curiosity."
    .
    Psychoticism
    .
    * Eccentricity:
    "I often have thoughts that make sense to me but that other people say are strange."
    "Others seem to think I'm quite odd or unusual."
    "My thoughts are strange and unpredictable."
    "My thoughts often don’t make sense to others."
    "Other people seem to think my behavior is weird."
    "I have several habits that others find eccentric or strange."
    "My thoughts often go off in odd or unusual directions."
    .
    * Unusual Beliefs and Experiences:
    "I often have unusual experiences, such as sensing the presence of someone who isn't actually there."
    "I've had some really weird experiences that are very difficult to explain."
    "I have seen things that weren’t really there."
    "I have some unusual abilities, like sometimes knowing exactly what someone is thinking."
    "I sometimes have heard things that others couldn’t hear."
    "Sometimes I can influence other people just by sending my thoughts to them."
    "I often see unusual connections between things that most people miss."
    .
    * Perceptual Dysregulation:
    "Things around me often feel unreal, or more real than usual."
    "Sometimes I get this weird feeling that parts of my body feel like they're dead or not really me."
    "It's weird, but sometimes ordinary objects seem to be a different shape than usual."
    "Sometimes I feel 'controlled' by thoughts that belong to someone else."
    "Sometimes I think someone else is removing thoughts from my head."
    "I have periods in which I feel disconnected from the world or from myself."
    "I can have trouble telling the difference between dreams and waking life."
    "I often 'zone out' and then suddenly come to and realize that a lot of time has passed."
    "Sometimes when I look at a familiar object, it's somehow like I'm seeing it for the first time."
    "People often talk about me doing things I don't remember at all."
    "I often can't control what I think about."
    "I often see vivid dream-like images when I’m falling asleep or waking up."
    .
    ("OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE vs. BEING CLOSED TO EXPERIENCE" modified from "PID-5" by Kreuger RF, Derringer J, Markon KE, Watson D, Skodol AE and Between facets and domains: 10 aspects of the Big Five)
    *MRI Research: Testing predictions from personality neuroscience. Brain structure and the big five.




    SOCIABILITY (EXTRAVERSION) vs. DETACHMENT
    .
    Sociability (Enthusiastic, Assertive)
    .
    Description: Sociability is synonymous with being enthusiastic and assertive; whereas Detachment is synonymous with being reserved and quiet. Assertiveness encompasses traits relating to leadership, dominance, and drive. Enthusiasm encompasses both outgoing friendliness or sociability and the tendency to experience and express positive emotion. The Sociability (Extraversion) dimension measures the behaviors that are central to the concept of SOCIABILITY and LEADERSHIP.
    Descriptors: Enthusiastic, assertive, sociable, outgoing, talkative, active, energetic, outspoken, dominant, forceful, show-off, spunky, adventurous, noisy, bossy.
    MRI Research*: Sociability (extraversion) was associated with increased volume of medial orbitofrontal cortex, a region involved in processing reward information.
    "I'm talkative"
    "I'm not reserved."
    "I'm full of energy."
    "I generate a lot of enthusiasm."
    "I'm not quiet."
    "I have an assertive personality."
    "I'm not shy or inhibited."
    "I am outgoing and sociable."
    "I make friends easily."
    "I warm up quickly to others."
    "I show my feelings when I'm happy."
    "I have a lot of fun."
    "I laugh a lot."
    "I take charge."
    "I have a strong personality."
    "I know how to captivate people."
    "I see myself as a good leader."
    "I can talk others into doing things."
    "I am the first to act."
    .
    Attention Seeking (Excessive Sociability)
    .
    "I like to draw attention to myself."
    "I crave attention."
    "I do things to make sure people notice me."
    "I do things so that people just have to admire me."
    "My behavior is often bold and grabs peoples' attention."
    .
    Detachment (Reserved, Quiet)
    .
    * Social Withdrawal:
    "I don’t like to get too close to people."
    "I don't deal with people unless I have to."
    "I'm not interested in making friends."
    "I don’t like spending time with others."
    "I say as little as possible when dealing with people."
    "I keep to myself."
    "I am hard to get to know."
    "I reveal little about myself."
    "I do not have an assertive personality."
    "I lack the talent for influencing people."
    "I wait for others to lead the way."
    "I hold back my opinions."
    .
    * Intimacy Avoidance:
    "I steer clear of romantic relationships."
    "I prefer to keep romance out of my life."
    "I prefer being alone to having a close romantic partner."
    "I'm just not very interested in having sexual relationships."
    "II break off relationships if they start to get close."
    .
    * Anhedonia (Lack of Pleasure):
    "I often feel like nothing I do really matters."
    "I almost never enjoy life."
    "Nothing seems to make me feel good."
    "Nothing seems to interest me very much."
    "I almost never feel happy about my day-to-day activities."
    "I rarely get enthusiastic about anything."
    "I don't get as much pleasure out of things as others seem to."
    .
    * Restricted Affectivity:
    "I don't show emotions strongly."
    "I don't get emotional."
    "I never show emotions to others."
    "I don't have very long-lasting emotional reactions to things."
    "People tell me it's difficult to know what I'm feeling."
    "I am not a very enthusiastic person."
    .
    ("Sociability vs. Detachment" modified from "PID-5" by Kreuger RF, Derringer J, Markon KE, Watson D, Skodol AE and Between facets and domains: 10 aspects of the Big Five)
    *MRI Research: Testing predictions from personality neuroscience. Brain structure and the big five.




    EMOTIONAL STABILITY VS. NEGATIVE EMOTION
    .
    Emotional Stability (Calm, Emotionally Stable)
    .
    Description: Emotional Stability is synonymous with being calm and emotionally stable; whereas Negative Emotion is synonymous with being distressed and easily upset. The Emotional Stability dimension measures the "safety vs. danger" behaviors that are central to the concept of COURAGE.
    Descriptors: Stable, calm, relaxed, contented
    "I am relaxed, and I handle stress well."
    "I am emotionally stable, and not easily upset."
    "I remain calm in tense situations."
    "I rarely get irritated."
    "I keep my emotions under control."
    "I rarely lose my composure."
    "I am not easily annoyed."
    "I seldom feel blue."
    "I feel comfortable with myself."
    "I rarely feel depressed."
    "I am not embarrassed easily."
    .
    Negative Emotion (Distressed, Easily Upset)
    .
    Description: Degree to which people experience persistent negative emotions (anxiety, anger, or depression) and are easily upset. (This could be thought of as high threat sensitivity or low stress tolerance.)
    Descriptors: Emotional instability, anxiety, irritability, depression, rumination-compulsiveness, self-consciousness, vulnerability
    MRI Research*: Negative Emotion was associated with increased volume of brain regions associated with threat, punishment, and negative emotions.
    .
    * Emotional Instability:
    "I get emotional easily, often for very little reason."
    "I get emotional over every little thing."
    "My emotions are unpredictable."
    "I never know where my emotions will go from moment to moment."
    "I am a highly emotional person."
    "I have much stronger emotional reactions than almost everyone else."
    "My emotions sometimes change for no good reason."
    "I get angry easily."
    "I get upset easily."
    "I change my mood a lot."
    "I am a person whose moods go up and down easily."
    "I get easily agitated."
    "I can be stirred up easily."
    .
    * Anxiousness:
    "I worry about almost everything."
    "I'm always fearful or on edge about bad things that might happen."
    "I always expect the worst to happen."
    "I am a very anxious person."
    "I get very nervous when I think about the future."
    "I often worry that something bad will happen due to mistakes I made in the past."
    "I am filled with doubts about things."
    "I feel threatened easily."
    "I am afraid of many things."
    .
    * Separation Insecurity:
    "I fear being alone in life more than anything else."
    "I can't stand being left alone, even for a few hours."
    "I’d rather be in a bad relationship than be alone."
    "I'll do just about anything to keep someone from abandoning me."
    "I dread being without someone to love me."
    .
    * Submissiveness:
    "I usually do what others think I should do."
    "I do what other people tell me to do."
    "I change what I do depending on what others want."
    .
    * Perseveration:
    "I get stuck on one way of doing things, even when it's clear it won't work."
    "I get stuck on things a lot."
    "It is hard for me to shift from one activity to another."
    "I get fixated on certain things and can’t stop."
    "I feel compelled to go on with things even when it makes little sense to do so."
    "I keep approaching things the same way, even when it isn’t working."
    .
    * Depression:
    "I have no worth as a person."
    "Everything seems pointless to me."
    "I often feel like a failure."
    "The world would be better off if I were dead."
    "The future looks really hopeless to me."
    "I often feel just miserable."
    "I'm very dissatisfied with myself."
    "I often feel like nothing I do really matters."
    "I know I'll commit suicide sooner or later."
    "I talk about suicide a lot."
    "I feel guilty much of the time."
    "I'm so ashamed by how I've let people down in lots of little ways."
    "I am easily discouraged."
    "I become overwhelmed by events."
    .
    ("Emotional Stability vs. Negative Emotion" modified from "PID-5" by Kreuger RF, Derringer J, Markon KE, Watson D, Skodol AE and Between facets and domains: 10 aspects of the Big Five)
    *MRI Research: Testing predictions from personality neuroscience. Brain structure and the big five.



    The Blueprint For Virtue Is Built Into Your DNA

    More than 2,300 years ago, the ancient Greek philosopher, Aristotle (384–322 BC), said: "What is the essence of life? To serve others and to do good." Aristotle taught that "doing good" was synonymous with living a life of virtue. He believed these virtues were in keeping with the laws of nature.

    Aristotle and other ancient Greek philosophers believed that the main virtues were justice, moderation, wisdom, sociability, courage, and physical health.

    Psychological research now has shown that these virtues do predict success and good health. It can be argued that these virtues represent basic evolutionary principles that are evident at every level of our existence: physiological, psychological, and social.

    DNA, The Basis of Life

    First let's examine the chemical basis of life - the DNA molecule.



    • The DNA molecule is the foundation of all life on earth. DNA is a double helix molecule that is like a spiral ladder with rungs. Each rung on this ladder consists of 2 base pairs; altogether there are 4 bases used by DNA. These four bases are abbreviated A, T, C, and G. These 4 bases form the "4 letter chemical code" in DNA which stores all the chemical information necessary for life.

    • The DNA molecule's spiral ladder has millions of rungs (base pairs). Part of DNA's chemical code is read by messenger RNA (which takes it out of the cell nucleus to the nearby ribosomes who use this code to create proteins). All the DNA chemical code in our 46 chromosomes is estimated to be about 3.2 billion base pairs long.

    • Proteins are built as chains of amino acids, which then fold into unique three-dimensional shapes that have different functions. Proteins compose structural and motor elements in the cell, and they serve as the catalysts for virtually every biochemical reaction that occurs in living things.

    DNA Replication



    • The mutual attraction between opposite bases (G-C and A-T) allows for DNA replication, since the DNA molecule can divide lengthwise into two halves. Then each half can attract the necessary opposite bases to create a complementary new strand of DNA.

    • This chemical replication only works because of the mutual attraction between opposite base pairs. This is somewhat like sexual reproduction, which only works because of the mutual attraction between opposite sexes.

    Virtues Manifested at The Physiological, Psychological, and Social Levels

    • Justice:

      • Physiological Level:

        Evolutionary principle of adaptation (living in harmony):

        In evolution, it is not the smartest or strongest organism that survives; it is the most adaptable. An organism must be able to flourish in harmony with its environment.


        For example, all the cells in a healthy body grow in harmony. Cancer represents the harmful breakdown in these harmonious cellular relationships. Cancer results from mutated DNA that is self-destructive because it causes uncontrollable growth which kills the organism and itself.

        Evolutionary principle of extinction:

        In evolution, no species is guaranteed survival.


        The vast majority of all species that ever lived are now extinct. There have been five mass extinction events in Earth's history. In the worst one, 250 million years ago, 96 percent of marine species and 70 percent of land species died off. It took millions of years to recover. Nowadays, many scientists are predicting that we're on track for a sixth mass extinction due to human destruction of the environment. Humans almost went extinct 60,000 years ago when only approximately 1,000 humans survived a global drought.

      • Psychological Level:

        Social harmony breaks down when individuals act unjustly. Their injustice consists of unfair and harmful violation of the rights of others.

        Injustice is more than just being deceitful (e.g., lying, stealing, cheating). Injustice also includes callousness, manipulativeness, hostility, unfounded suspiciousness, and grandiosity (feeling that others are inferior, and thus can be abused/exploited).

      • Social Level:

        Social injustice occurs when one group unfairly harms another.

        Injustice occurs when groups or nations unfairly and harmfully violate the rights of others. Once there is a breakdown in morality and rule of law, it is just a matter of time until the group or nation degenerates into corruption and a violent struggle for power.

    • Moderation:

      • Physiological Level:

        Evolutionary principle of homeostasis:

        Life involves constant change, and all organisms evolve ways to moderate these changes to maintain their stability (i.e., homeostasis). The goal of this homeostasis is to maintain optimal conditions for life (i.e., to avoid deficiency or excess).


        For example, DNA is self-controlling; it moderates its functioning by turning itself on or off depending upon its environment. Thus, by moderating its own functioning, DNA can better survive environmental change. However, there is a limit to how much change organisms can withstand (e.g., a fish out of water).

      • Psychological Level:

        Self-control and moderation in all things is the core feature of conscientiousness.

        Conscientious individuals have good homeostatic control of their behavior - it is neither excessively inhibited nor disinhibited. They are careful, responsible, hard-working, cautious, focused, and organized. In contrast, individuals that are careless, irresponsible, sporadically employed/unemployed, impulsive, easily distracted, and disorganized have much less success in life.

      • Social Level:

        When a social group or nation loses its self-discipline and moderation, it becomes more politically polarized and divided.



        This erodes its social cohesiveness. Its leadership becomes irresponsible, careless, indecisive, and impulsive - and eventually the group or nation fails.

    • Wisdom:

      • Physiological Level:

        Evolutionary principle of experimentation and evaluation:

        Evolution creates better adapted organisms by using mutation and natural selection.


        The sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA preserves the specific order of the rungs on the DNA ladder. Chance mutation causes deletion (or multiplication) of these rungs. Sometimes the rung of one DNA molecule breaks off and attaches itself to another DNA molecule. Natural selection then determines if the mutated DNA survives better than the original DNA. If so, this mutated DNA creates a more adaptable organism. Without this constant experimentation and evaluation (mutation and natural selection), evolution would stop.

        Evolutionary principle of replication:

        Evolution uses the scientific experimental method to discover the truth.


        Evolution is constantly experimenting - comparing the adaptive success of new DNA mutations against the success of their original DNA. As in science, evolution requires that the findings of its experiments be repeatedly replicated. This requirement for repeated replication of success eliminates unstable mutant DNA which can't successfully replicate its initial adaptive success.

        Evolutionary principle of information sharing:

        Organisms survive because they genetically share adaptive information from one generation to the next.


        For example, all the information needed to create an elephant is coded in its 56 chromosomes. This also includes all the elephant's instinctual behaviors. That's an incredible amount of adaptive information passed by DNA from one generation to the next.

        Evolutionary principle of contingency plans:

        In evolution, most of the information stored in DNA is contingency plans.


        Only a tiny amount of the information stored in DNA's base pairs tells how to make proteins. Far more of the information stored in DNA determines when and where these proteins are to be produced. Thus, DNA stores more information on contingency plans for "when" and "where" to do a task (e.g., produce protein) than it stores information on "how" to do it.

          From a computer programming viewpoint, DNA stores far more (contingency or conditional) "if ... then ..." commands than it stores "print" (i.e., produce protein) commands. It also appears that DNA stores backup plans ("if ... then ... else ...." commands). It is incredible that one information storing molecule can be so sophisticated!

        Evolutionary principle of using a standardized language to record adaptive information:

        Every living cell stores all of the adaptive information that evolution has taught it by using the same "4 letter chemical code" (4 base pairs repeated billions of times) in its DNA.


        Without this universal, standardized language to store information, evolution could not pass on adaptive information within the body or between generations.

        Evolutionary principle that life is a game of chance:

        Evolution is not guided by any plan; the direction it takes is determined solely by chance events.


        For example, our hominid lineage diverged from the ape lineage 7 to 8 million years ago. There were 21 hominid species - and 20 became extinct. Thus evolution tried 21 different experiments in creating hominids, and all proved to be evolutionary dead-ends - except our species, Homo sapiens. Our species has existed for about 100,000 years, and now we could be on the verge of extinction due to nuclear war or climate change.


      • Psychological Level:

        Humans are rational animals that evolution has given the ability to reason and learn. Wise, open-minded individuals that ask "why?" consistently outperform close-minded individuals that never question "why?". The hallmark of open-minded individuals is their curiosity and willingness to logically experiment and make mistakes in order to learn.

        Throughout human history, open-minded, inventive, quick learning individuals prospered better than close-minded, uncreative, and slow learning individuals. Open-minded individuals are more likely to gather relevant information and create contingency plans before they act.

        Wise individuals that keep a record of their progress (in diaries, business records, etc.) outperform those individuals that don't keep such records.

        Such records allow individuals to look back over the years to analyze their successes and failures. Otherwise, without these backup records, individuals must rely on their notoriously faulty memories. The most efficient record keeping involves using: (1) standardized language to avoid confusion, and (2) mathematically quantified data.

      • Social Level:

        War is the greatest threat to civilization and the accumulation of knowledge.

        History's Dark Ages occur when wars cause a collapse of civilization. The worst Dark Age occurred at the end of the Bronze Age around 1200 BC. For 40-50 years, war destroyed all the ancient Mediterranean civilizations (except Egypt's, which came close to collapsing). Almost every significant city in the eastern Mediterranean world was destroyed. These cultures (except Egypt) lost their literacy, political organization, and ability to build cities or conduct international trade. Their people barely survived and were forced to return to simple, small village life.

    • Sociability:

      • Physiological Level:

        Evolutionary principle of communal sharing:

        Those organisms which communally share adaptive information survive better than solitary organisms.


        The genetic sharing of DNA during sexual reproduction increases genetic diversity, which speeds up evolution. Even single-celled organisms, like bacteria, survive better in communal groups (where they can exchange their DNA), rather than surviving as solitary organisms.

      • Psychological Level:

        Humans are social beings that perform better working in groups. Compared to solitary individuals, socially outgoing individuals are more likely to acquire adaptive information from others.

        Also, compared to solitary individuals, socially outgoing individuals belong to more social networks; hence are more likely to receive social support in times of need.

      • Social Level:

        Social groups and nations that freely share adaptive information are the most likely to succeed.

        These nations democratically support freedom of speech and of the press, universal education, social equality, social mobility, and social mixing of their members. This social sharing and mixing strengthens the social cohesiveness of these groups and improves their quality of life.

    • Courage:

      • Physiological Level:

        Evolutionary principle of resiliency:

        The DNA molecule is extremely stable.


        During evolution, natural disasters have caused repeated near-total mass extinctions of all life on earth; yet life has always recovered. Now DNA life forms have spread to virtually every corner of our planet, and humans have spread to every continent.

      • Psychological Level:

        Courage involves remaining calm and emotionally stable in the face of adversity.

        Courage doesn't mean rushing headlong into danger. There is a natural "fight (anger), flight (fear), freeze (depression), or fantasize (delusion)" coping response to adversity. The courageous person will assess the situation, and take the appropriate "fight/flight/freeze/fantasize" response that best solves the problem. There is no one response that is always right. Individuals must remain calm and emotionally stable while facing adversity - otherwise strong emotion can severely impair their problem-solving ability.

      • Social Level:

        Historically, "strong man" dictatorial rule has proven to be disastrous because it allowed emotionally unstable leaders to have absolute power.

        It is essential that leaders of social groups or nations remain calm and emotionally stable when facing adversity. It is disastrous when leaders base their decisions on personal slight, fear, depression, or delusion. Dictators' idea of courage is to bully their opponents into submission, or to kill them (e.g., the Philippine tyrant, President Rodrigo Duterte, has publicly stated that he has personally killed hundreds of "criminals").

    • Physical Health:

      • Physiological Level:

        Evolutionary principle that all that matters is survival:

        Evolution selects for traits that help organisms survive, but doesn’t necessarily find optimal solutions.


        The goal of evolution is to create living organisms - even if they aren't perfect. Thus, evolution has produced many types of organisms - some are in a gray area between living and nonliving (e.g., viruses), the majority are single-celled (e.g., bacteria), and a few are multicellular (e.g., most animals and plants). It is an error to believe that the sole purpose of evolution is to create more complex or intelligent organisms. In terms of global biomass, single-celled organisms far outweigh multicellular organisms. So, in that sense, evolution has favored single-celled, unintelligent organisms.

      • Psychological Level:

        Our physical vices are the leading cause of disability and death.

        The modern vices of cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and unsafe sex are the leading causes of physical disability and death. There is no virtue in any behavior that physically harms the body. Evolution doesn't care if we are beautiful, strong, intelligent, or happy. Evolution only cares if we can flourish by living in harmony with others and our environment.

      • Social Level:

        Leading global risks:

        The leading global risks for mortality in the world are high blood pressure (responsible for 13% of deaths globally), tobacco use (9%), high blood glucose (6%), physical inactivity (6%), and overweight and obesity (5%).

        The leading global risks for burden of disease as measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) are underweight (6% of global DALYs) and unsafe sex (5%), followed by alcohol use (5%) and unsafe water, sanitation, and hygiene (4%).

        Globally, it appears that "modernization" increases addiction, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, unsafe sex, environmental destruction, and disastrous climate change. Thus, our modern civilization may severely impair our future evolution, or lead to our own extinction.


    The "Big 5 Factors" of Personality as Shown In Dogs

    The same "Big 5 Factors" of personality found in humans can be found in dogs. This makes sense because dogs, like humans, are a social species.



    AGREEABLENESS VS. ANTAGONISM
    .
    Agreeableness ("Friend")
    .
    Dog is friendly towards unfamiliar people.
    Dog is friendly towards other dogs.
    When off leash, dog comes immediately when called.
    Dog willingly shares toys with other dogs.
    Dog leaves food or objects alone when told to do so.
    .
    Antagonism ("Foe")
    .
    Dog is dominant over other dogs.
    Dog is assertive with other dogs (e.g., if in a home with other dogs, when greeting).
    Dog behaves aggressively towards unfamiliar people.
    Dog shows aggression when nervous or fearful.
    Dog aggressively guards coveted items (e.g., stolen item, treats, food bowl).
    Dog is quick to sneak out through open doors, gates.

    CONSCIENTIOUSNESS VS. DISINHIBITION
    .
    Conscientiousness ("Self-Controlled")
    .
    Dog works at tasks (e.g., getting treats out of a dispenser, shredding toys) until entirely finished.
    Dog works hard all day herding or pulling a sleigh (if a "working dog" on the farm or in the snow). *
    Dog is curious.
    .
    Disinhibition ("Disinhibited")
    .
    Dog is boisterous.
    Dog seeks constant activity.
    Dog is very excitable around other dogs.

    OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE vs. IMPAIRED INTELLECT
    .
    Open To Experience ("Open-Minded")
    .
    Dog is able to focus on a task in a distracting situation (e.g., loud or busy places, around other dogs).
    .
    Closed To Experience ("Closed-Minded")
    .
    Dog is slow to respond to corrections.
    Dog ignores commands.
    Dog is slow to learn new tricks or tasks.

    SOCIABILITY (EXTRAVERSION) vs. DETACHMENT
    .
    Sociability ("Approach")
    .
    Dog is attention seeking (e.g., nuzzling, pawing or jumping up on family members looking for attention and physical contact).*
    Dog seeks companionship from people.
    Dog is affectionate.
    .
    Detachment ("Avoidance")
    .
    Dog is aloof.
    Dog gets bored in play quickly.
    Dog is lethargic.

    EMOTIONAL STABILITY VS. NEGATIVE EMOTION
    .
    Emotional Stability ("Safety")
    .
    Dog tends to be calm.
    Dog is relaxed when greeting people.
    Dog is confident.
    Dog adapts easily to new situations and environments.
    .
    Negative Emotion ("Danger")
    .
    Dog is anxious.
    Dog is shy.
    Dog behaves fearfully towards unfamiliar people.
    Dog exhibits fearful behaviors when restrained.
    Dog avoids other dogs.
    Dog behaves fearfully towards other dogs.
    Dog behaves submissively (e.g., rolls over, avoids eye contact, licks lips) when greeting other dogs.
    .
    Modified from Jones, A. C. (2009). Development and validation of a dog personality questionnaire. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Texas, Austin.

    * New items added by Phillip W. Long MD

    Notice the Personality Differences Between Dogs and Humans

    Dogs and humans are strikingly similar on 4 of the "Big 5 Factors" of personality. However, dogs and humans are quite different on the "Conscientiousness" factor - because the canine brain isn't designed to organize work projects. That's why dogs don't build dog houses.

    Two of the "Big 5 Factors" of dog personality are clearly a function of dogs being a social species that forms social hierarchies: (1) the "Agreeableness" factor describes "friend vs. foe" behaviors, and (2) the "Sociability" factor describes "approach vs. avoidance" behaviors.

    The "Openness to Experience" describes the ability to learn from experience. The "Emotional Stability" factor describes "safety vs. danger" behaviors.

    The Brain and the "Big-5 Factors" of Human and Dog Personality

    It could be that the "Big-5 Factors" of personality represent some extremely basic brain functions. For example, when a young man approaches a young woman, she must: (1) decide whether he is friend or foe ["Agreeableness"], (2) decide if this represents safety or danger ["Emotional Stability"], (3) decide whether to approach or avoid him ["Sociability"], (4) decide whether to be self-controlled or disinhibited ["Conscientiousness"], and (5) learn from this experience ["Openness to Experience"].

    The "Big 5" Dimensions of Personality and Personality Disorders

    The following diagram shows the relationship between the "Big 5" dimensions of personality and personality disorders. This diagram is based on the research of Sam Gosling, Jason Rentfrow, and Bill Swann, Gerard Saucier, Colin G. DeYoung, and Douglas Samuel and Thomas Widiger.


    Enlarge Image


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    Histrionic Personality Disorder Scores High On Extraversion

    In personality testing, individuals with Histrionic Personality Disorder often have a High Extraversion test score.


    HIGH EXTRAVERSION NORMAL EXTRAVERSION LOW EXTRAVERSION (DETACHMENT)
    Inappropriately Seductive Intimacy Intimacy Avoidance
    Inappropriately seductive or provocative sexual behavior Wanting close, intimate relationships Avoidance of close relationships and intimate sexual relationships
    Attention Seeking Friendliness Social Withdrawal
    Trying to be the center of attention; being overly dramatic or flamboyant Friendly; interested in social contacts and activities; tendency to approach people Reserved, distant, preference for being alone; tendency to avoid people
    Theatrical Self-Dramatization Demonstrativeness Lack of Emotion
    Drama Queen; theatrically blows everything out of proportion Expressing one's feelings easily, openly or unreservedly (especially love or affection) Being unemotional, even in normally emotionally arousing situations
    Internet Mental Health: Extraversion Scale

    Avoidant Personality Disorder Scores Low On Extraversion

    The personality dimension of extraversion appears to measure how sociable and enthusiastic individuals are (e.g., Histrionic Personality Disorder) vs. how quiet and seclusive they are (e.g., Avoidant Personality Disorder).

    A Good Life

    How does one live a good life?

    One approach to answering this question is to study the behavior of individuals who live troubled lives. Could the opposite of their maladaptive behavior define how to live a good life?

    Consider the troubled lives of people with histrionic personality disorder. Individuals with histrionic personality disorder are inappropriately attention-seeking and seductive.

    Could the opposite of the maladaptive behaviors seen in histrionic personality disorder be a clue to how to live a good life? Many religions teach that we should be sincere and not seductive. This is the opposite of the inappropriately attention-seeking and seductive behavior seen in histrionic personality disorder.

      Histrionic Personality Disorder The Opposite Of Histrionic Personality Disorder
      Inappropriate Attention-Seeking: Sincerity:
      Shows self-dramatization, theatricality and exaggerated expression of emotion Does not show self-dramatization, theatricality, or exaggerated expression of emotion
      Is uncomfortable in situations in which she was not the center of attention Is comfortable in situations in which she is not the center of attention
      Consistently uses physical appearance to draw attention to herself Does not consistently use physical appearance to draw attention to herself
      Displays rapidly shifting and shallow expression of emotions Does not display rapidly shifting and shallow expression of emotions
      Has a style of speech is excessively impressionistic and lacking in detail Does not have a style of speech that is excessively impressionistic and lacking in detail
      Considers relationships to be more intimate than they actually are Does not consider relationships to be more intimate than they actually are
      Is suggestible (i.e., easily influenced by others or circumstances) Is not suggestible, i.e., not easily influenced by others or circumstances
      Inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior. Does not show inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior

    Primate Evolution

    DESCRIPTION There appears to be three different ways in which primates have evolved socially:

    • The chimpanzees have evolved to be socially antagonistic, competitive, callous, and manipulative. Chimpanzees are the only primates (apart from humans) that wage organized war. Thus chimpanzee social behavior most closely mirrors the antagonistic behavior of the antisocial-narcissistic-borderline-histrionic cluster of personality disorders.

    • In contrast, the bonobos have evolved to be socially anxious, peaceful, cooperative, and loving. Thus bonobo social behavior most closely mirrors the negative emotion (anxious) behavior of the avoidant-dependent cluster of personality disorders.

    • Another separate evolutionary path was followed by the orangutans. They evolved to become solitary hermits. Thus orangutan social behavior most closely mirrors the detached behavior of the paranoid-schizoid-schizotypal cluster of personality disorders.

    Parental Behaviors Which Increase The Risk Of Developing A Personality Disorder

    Research has shown that genetic, environmental, and prenatal factors all play important roles in the development of personality disorder. Research has also shown that low parental affection and harsh parenting increase the risk of a child later developing a personality disorder.

    "Low affection" was defined as: low parental affection, low parental time spent with the child, poor parental communication with the child, poor home maintenance, low educational aspirations for the child, poor parental supervision, low paternal assistance to the child's mother, and poor paternal role fulfillment. "Harsh parenting" was defined as: harsh punishment, inconsistent maternal enforcement of rules, frequent loud arguments between the parents, difficulty controlling anger toward the child, possessiveness, use of guilt to control the child, and verbal abuse.

    Setting Goals In Therapy

      Questions To Ask When Setting Goals

      In The Past Week:
      • WHO: was your problem?

      • EVENT: what did he/she do?

      • RESPONSE: how did you respond to that event?

      • OUTCOME: did your response help?

      • TRIGGER: what did you do that could have triggered this problem?

      • GOAL: what life skill(s) do you have to work on? (from checklist)

      Example Of Setting Goals In Interviewing A Person With Histrionic Personality Disorder

      In The Past Week:
      • WHO: was your problem?
        "My boyfriend."

      • EVENT: what did he/she do?
        "I was just talking to this guy at a party, and my boyfriend got all jealous."

      • RESPONSE: how did you respond to that event?
        "I stormed out of the party. I wish now that we hadn't made such a scene."

      • OUTCOME: did your response help?
        "No, I over-reacted. It wasn't worth upsetting everyone at the party."

      • TRIGGER: what did you do that could have triggered this problem?
        "My boyfriend knows that I like to flirt. I just got a little carried away that night."

      • GOAL: what life skill(s) do you have to work on? (from checklist)
        "I want to work on: (1) Sincerity ("being genuine - not overly theatrical or attention-seeking"), and (2) Chastity ("avoidance of casual sex ["one night stands"] AND absence of intense desire for illicit sex")."


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    Improving Positive Behavior

    Philosophers for the past 2,500 years have taught that it is very beneficial to start the day with goal-setting, and end the day with a brief review.

    This habit of planning the day in the morning, then assessing these plans in the evening has been shown to increase health and happiness. There is an additional benefit from doing a weekly review of your life satisfaction.

    Note: When each of the following videos finishes; you must exit YouTube (by manually closing the window) in order to return to this webpage.



    International Space Station (For Meditation)



    Planning My Day (5-Minute Meditation Video)

    Planning My Day (Picture)



    Reviewing My Day Or Week (5-Minute Meditation Video)



    Life Satisfaction Scale (Video)



    Healthy Social Behaviors Scale (Video)



    Mental Health Scale (Video)

    Why We All Need to Practice Emotional First Aid



    The Philosophy Of Stoicism (5 minute video)

    Stoicism 101 (52 minute video)



    The Roman emperor and Stoic philosopher Marcus Aurelius ruled from 161 to 180 A.D.

    An Example Of Mindfulness Meditation (10 minute video)

    In the 5th century BCE, Buddha spent 6 years of his life mastering mindfulness meditation. He then decided to look beyond meditation. Buddha concluded that simply emptying the mind of thought is calming, but otherwise it accomplishes little - since "You return to the same world". Instead, Buddha taught that we should change our world by seeking enlightenment through practicing compassion, and living a calm, peaceful, happy life.



    7-Minute Workout Is All You Need To Get Back Into Physical Shape


    Click Here For More Self-Help



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    • The best summary on bad research is given by Laura Arnold in this Tedx lecture. If you read nothing else about research, you owe it to yourself to watch this short video - it is excellent!

    • Criteria For High Quality Research Studies

    • It is imperative that medical researchers conduct high quality research studies, otherwise the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) refuses to licence their new drug or therapy. In 2009, the cost of successfully licensing one new drug or therapy under the FDA scheme was estimated to be US$1,000 million. Thus psychiatric research which leads to FDA approval of a new drug or therapy has to be of the highest quality; however the majority of psychological research studies on new therapies fail to reach these high standards for research. This could explain why two-thirds of psychological research studies can't be replicated. High quality research must meet the following criteria:

      • Randomized Controlled Trial:
        Ask: Was the trial randomized? Was the randomization procedure described and was it appropriate? The best research design is to have research subjects randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. It is essential that confounding factors be controlled for by having a control group or comparator condition (no intervention, placebo, care as usual etc.).

      • Representative Sample:
        Ask: Do the research subjects represent a normal cross-section of the population being studied? Many psychological research studies using university students are flawed because their subjects are not representative of the normal population since they are all W.E.I.R.D. (White, Educated, Intelligent, Rich, and living in a Democracy).

      • Single Blind Trial:
        Ask: Was the treatment allocation concealed? It is essential that the research subjects are kept "blind" as to whether they are in the experimental or control group (in order to control for any placebo effects).

      • Double Blind Trial (Better Than Single Blind Trial):
        Ask: Were blind outcome assessments conducted? In a double blind study, neither the research subjects nor the outcome assessors know if the research subject is in the experimental or control group. This controls for both the placebo effect and assessor bias.

      • Baseline Comparability:
        Ask: Were groups similar at baseline on prognostic indicators? The experimental and control groups must be shown to be comparable at the beginning of the study.

      • Confounding Factors:
        Ask: Were there factors, that weren't controlled for, that could have seriously distorted the study's results? For example, research studies on the effectiveness of mindfulness cognitive therapy in preventing depressive relapse forgot to control for whether the research subjects were also simultaneously receiving antidepressant medication or other psychological treatments for depression.

      • Intervention Integrity:
        Ask: Was the research study protocal strictly followed? The research subjects must be shown to be compliant (e.g., taking their pills, attending therapy) and the therapists must be shown to be reliably delivering the intervention (e.g., staying on the research protocol).

      • Statistical analysis:
        Ask: Was a statistical power calculation described? The study should discuss its statistical power analysis; that is whether the study size is large enough to statistically detect a difference between the experimental and control group (should it occur) and usually this requires at least 50 research subjects in the study.

        Ask: Are the results both statistically significant and clinically significant? The results should be both statistically significant (with a p-value <0.05) and clinically significant using some measure of Effect Size such as Standardized Mean Difference (e.g., Cohen's d >= 0.33). The summary statistics should report what percentage of the total variance of the dependent variable (e.g., outcome) can be explained by the independent variable (e.g., intervention). In clinical studies, the study should report the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB), and the number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH).

          Number Needed To Benefit (NNTB): This is defined as the number of patients that need to be treated for one of them to benefit compared with a control in a clinical trial. (It is defined as the inverse of the absolute risk reduction.) Note: Statistically, the NNTB depends on which control group is used for comparison - e.g., active treatment vs. placebo treatment, or active treatment vs. no treatment.

          Number Needed To Harm (NNTH): This is defined as the number of patients that need to be treated for one of them to be harmed compared with a control in a clinical trial. (It is defined as the inverse of the absolute increase in risk of harm.)

          Tomlinson found “an NNTB of 5 or less was probably associated with a meaningful health benefit,” while “an NNTB of 15 or more was quite certain to be associated with at most a small net health benefit.”

        Ask: Does the researcher accept full responsibility for the study's statistical analysis? The researcher should not just hand over the study's raw data to a corporation (that may have $1,000 million invested in the study) to do the statistical analysis.

      • Completeness of follow-up data:
        Ask: Was the number of withdrawals or dropouts in each group mentioned, and were reasons given for these withdrawals or dropouts? Less than 20% of the research subjects should drop out of the study. The intervention effect should persist over an adequate length of time.

      • Handling of missing data:
        Ask: Was the statistical analysis conducted on the intention-to-treat sample? There must be use of intention-to-treat analysis (as opposed to a completers-only analysis). In this way, all of the research subjects that started the study are included in the final statistical analysis. A completers-only analysis would disregard those research subjects that dropped out.

      • Replication of Findings:
        Ask: Can other researchers replicate this study's results? The research study's methodology should be clearly described so that the study can be easily replicated. The researcher's raw data should be available to other researchers to review (in order to detect errors or fraud).

      • Fraud:
        Ask: Is there a suspicion of fraud? In a research study, examine the independent and dependent variables that are always measured as a positive whole number (e.g., a variable measured on a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from "1 = definitely false to 5 = definitely true" etc.). For each of these variables, look at their sample size (n), mean (M) and standard deviation (SD) before they undergo statistical analysis. There is a high suspicion of fraud in a study's statistics:

        • If the M is mathematically impossible (online calculator): This is one of the easiest ways to mathematically detect fraud. The mean (M) is defined as "the sum (Sum) of the values of each observation divided by the total number (n) of observations". So: M = Sum/n. Thus: (Sum) = (M) multiplied by (n). We know that, if a variable is always measured as a positive whole number, the sum of these observations always has to be a whole number. For these variables to test for fraud: calculate (M) multiplied by (n). This calculates the Sum which MUST be a positive whole number. If the calculated Sum isn't a positive whole number; the reported mean (M) is mathematically impossible - thus the researcher either cooked the data or made a mistake. A recent study of 260 research papers published in highly reputable psychological journals found that 1 in 2 of these research papers reported at least one impossible value, and 1 in 5 of these research papers reported multiple impossible values. When the authors of the 21 worst offending research papers were asked for their raw data (so that its reliability could be checked) - 57% angrily refused. Yet such release of raw data to other researchers is required by most scientific journals. (Here is an example of a research paper filled with mathematically impossible means.)

        • If the SD is mathematically impossible (online calculator): When researchers fraudulently "cook" their data, they may accidently give their data a mean and standard deviation that is mathematically impossible for a (normally distributed) strictly positive variable (because the "cooked" M and SD would mathematically require the strictly positive variable's range of data to include negative numbers). For a normally distributed sample of size of 25-70, this occurs when the SD is greater than one-half of the M; for a sample size of 70+, this occurs when the SD is greater than one-third of the M [using these formulas].

        • If the SD/M is very small (i.e., the variable's standard deviation is very small compared to the mean suggesting data smoothing).

        • If the SD's are almost identical (i.e., the variables have different means but almost identical standard deviations).

        • If the 4th digit of the values of the variables aren't uniformly distributed - since each should occur 10% of the time (Benford's Law).

        • If the researcher is legally prevented from publishing negative findings about a drug or therapy because that would violate the "nondisclosure of trade secrets" clause in the research contract (i.e., it is a "trade secret" that the drug or therapy is ineffective - hence this can not be "disclosed"). Approximately half of all registered clinical trials fail to publish their results.

        • If the researcher refuses to release his raw data to fellow researchers (so that they can check its validity). In order to be published in most scientific journals, a researcher must promise to share his raw data with fellow researchers. Thus a researcher's refusal to do so is almost a sure indicator of fraud.

        • If the research study's data contradicts the study's own conclusions - surprisingly, this often occurs.

    • Calling Bullshit In The Age of Big Data - "Bullshit is language, statistical figures, data graphics, and other forms of presentation intended to persuade by impressing and overwhelming a reader or listener, with a blatant disregard for truth and logical coherence." Reading the syllabus of this university course should be required reading for every student of mental health. This syllabus is absolutely fantastic!

    • Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals: Guidelines and Explanations - American Psychologist 1999

    • Not All Scientific Studies Are Created Equal - video

    • The efficacy of psychological, educational, and behavioral treatment

    • Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science

    • Psychologists grapple with validity of research

    • Industry sponsorship and research outcome (Review) - Cochrane Library

    • 'We've been deceived': Many clinical trial results are never published - (text and video)

    • Junk science misleading doctors and researchers

    • Junk science under spotlight after controversial firm buys Canadian journals

    • Medicine with a side of mysticism: Top hospitals promote unproven therapies - Are some doctors becoming modern witchdoctors?

    • When Evidence Says No, But Doctors Say Yes


    • Cochrane Reviews (the best evidence-based, standardized reviews available)

    Research Topics

    Histrionic Personality Disorder - Latest Research (2016-2017)


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    Internet Mental Health ? 1995-2017 Phillip W. Long, M.D.